tribalmarket.jpg
To manage produce (sellers), consumption (buyers) is economy & Market is foundation of economy
agricultureworker.jpg
Nearly 60-70% of world population employed in rural agriculture

click to enlarge
foodmarket.jpg
fruit market in Paris

womanweavingcarpet.jpg
Perfect Management will promote rural economy(finding more resources of employment)

CLICK to view enlarged picture(FRENCH petrol pump)
emppetrol.jpg
Self service petrol pump is a way to murder employment

The Time Rivers: An Ancient Map of Time Revealing the Secret Legacy and Destiny of Human Civilization

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Economics AND Management

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Economics and Civilizations

Some 200,000 years back “Homo Sapiens” evolved in Africa. Apart from learning technique for making stone tools they developed abstract art engraving on ostrich shells, bone & shell jewellery and sharp bone tools. Human instinct to live together formed societies, which helped moving forward in many groups; about 60,000 years back they spread out into the rest of the world. Essence of economics existed even during that period, which behaved them to migrate from Africa as first human species. Migration “out of Africa” improved locating new resources and survival tools.  While, in many parts they had to compete with their ancestors “Neanderthals” or "Homo Erectus" who migrated from Africa earlier. The theory of Neanderthals/Homo Erectus and Homo sapiens interbreeding or  wiped out by Homo sapiens or became extinct are still a disputed arguments among explorers. Ancient ancestors migrated from Africa had an economic goal “survival”.

1.     Migration is always an economic activity whether ancient ancestors or present modern human. The economics is a process of managing continued existence, resources and consumption.

2.     Human’s or any specie’s basic instinct is to store the remaining after consumption, for the future needs is “saving”.  “Exchange” is interchanging surplus or unneeded for currently required. These two factors “Save” and “Exchange” significant as “save” signifies “Banking” and “Exchange” signifies “trade” in modern economic world. Save and exchange are integral parts of the definition of economics.

3.     In any civilization whether Stone Age or Iron Age or our modern times, activities carried out that creates environment to survive or secures survival is the economic activity.

Evolution of managing economics expanded farther during first historic civilization some 8000 years ago through farmers in Mesopotamia. Farmers benefited from Tigris and Euphrates rivers and its fertile lands. In Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer, Akkadian, Babylonian, and Assyrian empires all natives to the territory of modern-day Iraq (Wikipedia). They began to grow grains and domesticated animals which provided an alternative food and compost for agricultural land. As the population grew feeding became a challenging task. They invented a methodical form of irrigation system using canals and dams that converted barren to fertile land. This developed irrigation system transformed agricultural outlook and grew trade relationships.

Rising agricultural economy allowed trade to grow and develop markets, which later transformed to cities. Economic movement and growth eased expansion of urban cities. The first big city was Uruk (4400-3100 BC) later became Babylonia. Advancement of agriculture and over production initiated finding ways to dispose opened international trade routes to Egypt, Indus Valley and other parts. Imports and Exports were mainly done on equal value of merchandise, later exchanged with silver and precious metals. Economic activities evolved and trade became the major avenue to relationship with foreign countries helped extending exchange of discoveries, culture, and religion.  

The people of Mesopotamia invented earliest form of writing called cuneiform, was an added value to record production and marketing. Both barter and money systems prevailed in trading activity. Banking system was introduced that made methods of transactions easier in the form of clay tablets engraved notes and ring moneys. Similar to present banking systems, Mesopotamian banks too received deposits, lend on interest. This civilization’s economic system was more or less similar to present private participation but in the control of dynasties. Dynasties controlled land, people, military and economy under Hammurabi code (1795-1750 BC). A tax system was introduced by dynasties, which was binding to all traders and citizens. Most taxes were collected in the form of live stock, precious metals or labour. The tax net was wide, almost each activity was taxed that attracted smuggling and tax evasion. Penalties under Hammurabi code was too tough, non payment of taxes on harvest, cheating or theft. In the same time the code was relaxed to those who lost crop or suffered loss in commerce or trading due to disaster or other mishap, was freed from tax payment.

Finally, the prosperous civilization too was not immortal and had to face environmental change, regional war, over urban population and declined resources, which weakened this civilization and fell to Achaemenid Persian Empire. This civilization’s elaborate means of economics was gift to next civilizations.

1.     Now the priority of inhabitants and dynasties were upgrading living standard indicates nation and individual grew economically. Priorities shifted from mere essentials to comfort such as keeping slaves, decoration and fashion. Rising income created huge demand for luxury goods such as ornaments, potteries and decorative items.

 

2.     Use of slaves reduced cost of agriculture and commercial activities that led to huge margins to the owners. Babylonia defeating kingdom of Judah, imprisoned soldiers and inhabitants as slaves, used them in agriculture without any remuneration. During this period male & female slaves were displayed for purchase and sale, value depended on the worth of a slave. This practice continued until Persian king Cyrus the saviour invaded and forced release of slaves.

3.     Economic growth and surplus funds allured inventions and discoveries. Sumerians of this civilization invented writing helped keeping record of economic transactions. And introduced law of conduct applicable to all, for uninterrupted social order.

4.     Economic growth built trade and cultural relationship with neighbouring regions, which exchanged discoveries, developed literacy and knowledge, social beliefs and customs. 

5.     Therefore, the economics is a science that exists whether fails or survives as long as human needs exist. The growth is measured by standard of living and consumption pattern. The economics is integral part of social systems as economic functions are to gratify social needs for its inhabitants. The social potency lies on its economic growth and stability.

6.     The regions in Mesopotamia’s economic growth diverted attention from agriculture to more profitable occupation. Lacking innovation in irrigation & agriculture lapsed focus on solving mineral salts layer problem in cultivable lands, (about 2300 BC) drastically reduced agricultural productions was foremost reason for its weakening. The weak regions were prone to invasion for wealth and minerals. The expansion does not mean to neglect the base on which the economic growth erected.

Use of slaves in Mesopotamia reduced cost of agriculture and commercial activities that led to huge margins to the owners.

 

Economics is management of produce and consumption/ earning and spending. Market is the foundation that decides how supply and demand of produce is? What to sell/buy? How to sell/buy? When to sell/buy? Why to sell/buy? Buy/sell or not, play role to shape micro economics. When this is used in broader level such as national income, total saving, investment, consumption expenditure, export/import and balance of payment, employment status, and money supply is macro economics. So Individual behaviour towards their economical practice is individual (Micro) economy and national behaviour is national economy (Macro).

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Be Cautious: Above information about economics are only basics based on my assumptions, may not be correct so use only if your teachers are satisfied. For history I referred Wikipedia and other sources whose links are cited.

Disastrous management & unsuccessful national economy

  • Underdeveloped countries following mainly the modern western economy that only helps limited population: Many economic policies are too complicated does not relate with the major population.
  • Inadequate planning: For rural and urban sources and employment generation. Major rural population is not suited to modern industries that way income generation dips.
  • Population growth exceeds over the availability of resources to create scarcity.
  • No fullest utilization of natural resources. Lack of research and development in agricultural and forest sectors.  Major population  live in rural areas. Modern industries are too modern requires less and les human labour. It is acceptable that not to depend on agricultural economy alone rather realization to be that for what reason and for whom technology being imported? Have people been trained or is mere waste or for only urban educated class? Internet facility in a village without computer is wastage.
  • Heavy imports for saving borders and other necessities than the exports causing heavy trade deficits.
  • Blame a new educational system that enabled the emergence of new educated class useful for administration and managerial tasks.
  • Unplanned Higher expenditure by Governments than revenue and indebtness results high taxes leaves no surplus in the hands of public discourages to reinvest and finds ways to abstain from correct taxes.
  • High corruption/ red tape-ism are hurdle for right process to carry on.
  • Unstable political set up only makes situation worst.

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Best education is to gain positive knowledge to survive and perform. When in the education, seeking highest marks becomes priority the objective is only how to get best percentage by hook or crook. Is this not the guidelines for children to become selfish!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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child labour photos, rural poverty photos, urban poverty photos, Ignoring rural development, Economics AND Management, Why women are poor and oppressed? TRADE & POVERTY relation, What is "BEHAVIOR", What is environment? Emotion is a reaction to the influence, What is culture? Africa to Indus-Valley (Dravidian,) Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age), What is religion and how did it exist, What is civilization?, "ART" is reflection of identity!!! "Stress", "LOVE" is SUBMISSION to the ATTRACTION!!! THE COMMON LANGUAGES, Learning the skill to survive is "EDUCATION" !!! Evolution is a process for suitability !!!! Sex & Attraction, enjoy tribal dance click photos, Urbanization and the Future World, movies - videos, Handmade rugs/ carpets process photographs, social study books, SOCIAL STUDY TRAVEL LINKS.