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The Map of Indo-European Migrations

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Dravidian Origin of Indus Valley Civilization

"Indus Valley" the strongest civilization faded as a result of corrupting Vedic age and within rivalries.

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Economics and Civilizations (Indus Valley)

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One of the largest civilizations 7000-3200 BC located along Indus & Saraswati (Ghaggar-Hakra) Rivers, as old as Mesopotamia, China and Ancient Egypt, was known as Indus Valley or Harappa civilization. This civilization extending from India to Pakistan, Afghanistan and up to Iran borders comprised of major urban cities like Harappa, Lothal, Mohenjo-daro Dholavira, Kalibanga, and Rakhigarhi known for socio-economic evolution signifying social status of inhabitants. Perhaps with most advanced and planned cities built with river and rain water storage. Individual houses with sewage systems, bathroom and toilets. They were also commonly known as “Dravidian” and had own language. Had liberal society who believed in integrating all together to develop economic structure, perhaps unique social system. It was a form of socialism, in which all have respective duties and rewards. Among these cities Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro were significantly important as evidence findings in archaeological excavations clarifies economic growth rate at highest.

Inhabitants of this civilization were farmers and livestock raisers. However, after the agricultural growth reached to its peak, their priority shifted to trading products like minerals, precious and non precious metals, gems, decorative ornaments, pulses and spices, food grains, cooking oil & seeds mustard, sesame, dates, burnt bricks for construction, official seals, timber, cotton and wool, and cosmetics. Finally, the trade became the primary source of income, which revolutionised trade routes by modernizing roads, carts and bullock carts, sea and river boats made of wooden planks. During this period exports - imports trade was at peak. Living standard as compared to other civilizations was better. Temple and Temple heads were the ultimate power of the social and economic structure. Temple rules and guidelines applicable to all inhabitants were same; all were attached together to form law abiding society. Even kings or regional heads were responsible to follow temple directions.

The population was classified in 4 categories to perform economic duties 1. Brahmins: To perform religious and literal duties. Brahmins were known for “Nirdhan”, literally rich and economically poor. Even today we can observe this ritual in Buddhism; these literal monks collect donations from individuals. They were not allowed to accumulate assets, rather they had to earn by delivering knowledge to the people. Feeding Brahmins on auspicious occasions was considered as spiritual activity. 2. Kshatriya: To perform for security and protection against invasion or crimes. 3. Vishya: Agriculture, Trade and all economic activities. Anybody could choose any profession provided one is capable.  4. Shudra: Were mainly founder of Indus Valley civilization called “Dravidians” were farm workers, pottery or traditional arts and craft creators and vendors. This economic division was to fix responsibility and organize social order. That did not mean one with existing profession could not opt for Brahmins and Kshatriya role. There are many examples of Shudra conducted role of Brahmin and Kshatriya, such as Valmiki born to Shudra family turned great writer who wrote Ramayana, Parasuram born in Brahmin family but his role was Kshatriya. In my opinion, cause of slave and untouchable was influenced by developing overseas trade with Mesopotamia regions and Egypt, where slaves existed. These 4 divisions had economic reasons but later became tool for religious exploitation when Aryan migrant prospered. 

         In the socialistic pattern, control of economics remains with the societies and its inhabitants. The society is: “people of same philosophy grouping together for the purpose”. The excavation in Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Dholavira discovered, the settlements were built without discriminating inhabitants. Economic privilege and temple law prevailed to all were similar.

         As the sea and river routes were strong, exports too flourished. People behind this activity were “merchant capitalists” who risked their investments on produce for more profits. I do not think capitalism began from 9th or 12th century, rather, it began the day market was established, money power controlled demand - supply and the valuation.

         Religious influence was so intense that the law was spiritual command which everybody obeyed willingly. The inhabitants were peace lovers so crime was minimal.

         The traders were the most tax payers, more they generated profit more they paid. And the temples used collected tax to maintain social order. Temples were open to all, even poor were fed, was religious law of “Indus” or “Hindu”, the traces of food distribution to hungry and devotees still exist in Hindu temples.

         As long as the trade relationship with other regions was strong, fear of aggression did not exist, therefore, they did not pay attention to strengthening military power that backfired.

         Without realizing the consequences they built strong economy based on trade and market, kept converting fertile lands to urban cities.

         First rule of economic management is to strengthen pillars (strong base) on which the economic structure is erected. The base of all the economics is, managing ways of survival of human race.

         By 1800-1700 BC, gradual economic eclipse appeared and the entire civilisation disappeared. Rather we should say there was widespread migration to other parts of the world. Without water, food and environment for life, all civilizations bound to wash away as Indus Valley civilization. Nevertheless, keeping all the historical facts aside, it did devastate. A matured and prosperous civilization, that made and shattered by river.

Many scholars believe cause of devastation in Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro was over exploitation of resources resulting climate change and flooding river fractured this civilization. The survival persuaded inhabitants migrating to other parts through river side and spread over all Asia. Even now the traces of Hindu culture we can find around Ganges River in Varanasi, Hardwar, and Kaashi. Most settled down around and along the river side for better opportunities. Many believed a race name Indo-European “Aryan” tribes from central Asia migrated invaded with their strong military power enslaved local inhabitants and some sneaked into mountains. But some contradicted the claim of any Aryan invasion. However, there are some viewpoints too, that these tribes migrated to developed Indus valley in search of better life and got integrated, as Africans, Asians, Jewish and east Europeans in France and other European countries and now they are the citizens possessing same rights and duties.

Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age) - Yajur Veda 19.30, 10.53.6 emphasis on weaving and its importance, Rig Veda 6.9.2 and 3 stresses on having training centres for all so can learn to weave. “Srimad Bhagavatam 4.15.17  daśa-candram — decorated with ten moons; asim — sword; rudraḥ — Lord Śiva; śata-candram — decorated with one hundred moons; tathā — in that manner; ambikā — the goddess Durgā; somaḥ — the moon-demigod; amṛta-mayān — made of nectar; aśvān — horses; tvaṣṭā — the demigod Viśvakarmā; rūpa-āśrayam — very beautiful; ratham — a chariot”. Iron weapons and shields made by blacksmiths. “Shrimad Bhagvatam 4.15.16 brahmā — Lord Brahmā; brahma-mayam — made of spiritual knowledge; varma — armor; bhāratī — the goddess of learning; hāram — necklace; uttamam — transcendental; hariḥ — the Supreme Personality of Godhead; sudarśanam cakram — Sudarśana disc; tat-patnī — His wife (Lakṣmī); avyāhatām — imperishable; śriyam — beauty and opulence.”   The ‘Panchal’; were carpenters, blacksmith and goldsmith, was called as Viswakarmas or Viswabrahmins. “(docstoc.com) Brass workers known as ‘thatthakara’ made brass utensils and bangles. Tradition of wearing bangles, sindhur at the parting of the hair by married ladies began in 6500BC.”  In Rig Veda Iron was named ‘Shyama’ Copper as ‘Ayas’ and Gold as ‘Hiranya’. Iron and foundries existed several centuries before Hittites claimed. “Ancient mining site of Zawar, Rajasthan—its alchemy because copper could be made to shine like gold as aara-ku_t.a adding zinc to create the brass alloy. The swastika hieroglyph represents zinc, a zinc furnance and detailed process is shown in the link (Sarasvati97.blogpost.in).   Mycenaeans claim first to have iron weapons in Mediterranean to disintegrate Troy and Ancient Persia were exported from Indus or may be through Macedonia, which had impressive imports of goods and exported to third party. Indus had mastery in engrave works, Buffalo horns as Sarasvati Hieroglyph, pictures in the link show intricate work of engraving by buffalo was made by brass worker in man.d.a_ = warehouse, workshop. Scholars like B.R. Sharma hold that the Rig Vedic people may have been ship builders engaging in maritime trade. In Rig Veda 1.25.7, 7.88.3 and other instances, Samundra is mentioned together with the ships. Some words that are used for ships are Nau, Peru, Dhi and Druma. The Hindu.com – “Rig Veda IV.58, 1.11 and VII.88.3 frequently mentions the waviness of the ocean and the back and forth movement waves experienced while in a ship on the sea.”

Previous pages – Economics and Management

Be Cautious: Above information about economics are only basics based on my assumptions, may not be correct so use only if your teachers are satisfied. For history I referred Wikipedia and other sources whose links are cited.

Basics for economics

Needs: differentiate in two categories

1.Essential needs: of human are food, electricity, shelter, clothes, water but modern time has enhanced needs to more commodities like communication facility, other electronic items and transportation, services to promote products etc;.  2. Comfort and luxury needs: all items to live in comfort, when people have extra money to uplift the standard of living.

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Best education is to gain positive knowledge to survive and perform. When in the education, seeking highest marks becomes priority the objective is only how to get best percentage by hook or crook. Is this not the guidelines for children to become selfish!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Sadashivan’s quotes


"Life seems sometimes like nothing more than a series of losses, from beginning to end. That's the given. How you respond to those losses, what you make of what's left, that's the part you have to make up as you go."— Katharine Weber

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child labour photos, rural poverty photos, urban poverty photos, Ignoring rural development, Economics AND Management, Why women are poor and oppressed? TRADE & POVERTY relation, What is "BEHAVIOR", What is environment? Emotion is a reaction to the influence, What is culture? Africa to Indus-Valley (Dravidian,) Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age), What is religion and how did it exist, What is civilization?, "ART" is reflection of identity!!! "Stress", "LOVE" is SUBMISSION to the ATTRACTION!!! THE COMMON LANGUAGES, Learning the skill to survive is "EDUCATION" !!! Evolution is a process for suitability !!!! Sex & Attraction, enjoy tribal dance click photos, Urbanization and the Future World, movies - videos, Handmade rugs/ carpets process photographs, social study books, SOCIAL STUDY TRAVEL LINKS.