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Economics and Civilizations (Persian Civilization)

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As scholars explain; the Parse original name was derived from a tribal “Persua” were also known as “Aryans” Indo-Europeans community, migrated late 4th to mid 2nd millennium BC from central Asia. Some say the migration of Indo-European migration was much earlier than estimated. Iran heritage website claims they migrated some 30000 years ago to ancient Mesopotamia.

The history of Parse (Greek name Persian) Civilization is ancient when agricultural community from Seleucia (Susiana) an ancient city of Mesopotamia migrated to now Western Iran around at 8000BC, began to cultivate and breed livestock. Maturity of this civilization began from 4th millennium when Susa an oldest town was an extended part of Sumerian city of Uruk, as was the first city of Mesopotamia situated close to Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. The inhabitants had the vast experience of agriculture and cattle breeding and handcraft industries. Besides, they were also known for engraving, mining precious and non precious metals, minerals, wool, and cotton.

Cyrus 2 of Persia founder of the Persian Empire (580–529 BC), for Jews he was a liberator who freed them from Babylonian slavery, besides, financed them to build temple (Ezra 1: 1-4)   conquered most Central–Western Asia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, northeast Africa, Greece, and Balkans. Although he conquered most of the nations yet he delivered message of humanity and declared the first charter of human rights and respected culture and religion of conquered regions. His invasion extended territories that expanded economic activities throughout the regions. He managed his empire, military and economy in different way than all other civilizations. Prior to his reign slaves were commonly ill-treated and used without remunerating them.  His clear message guaranteed him “Messiah” for Jews. Influenced by reign qualities Greeks too followed same principles of respecting humanity.  The regions he conquered were liable to pay taxes which generated fund to aid military and regime expenditure. As long as they paid taxes he had good reasons to respect their freedom.

         He introduced Rug & carpet hand weaving. Each city of Persia had its symbolic design which became important to export growth.

         He also formed a modern postal system throughout the empire, constituted several relay stations called Chapar Khaneh. 

         He was the first pillar of Human rights. He respected the freedom to religion and culture.

The 3rd king Alchaemenes Darius (550-486 BCE) ruled almost all parts of Central – Western Asia, Mesopotamia, Egypt, northeast Africa, Macedonia, Balkans.  His contribution to improve trade and commerce revolutionised trade routes, roads, postal, trade exchange, and trade guarantee and secured trade routes. He introduced Daric gold and silver coins as universal currency to regulate trade and commerce. He elaborated scope of taxation from trade & production to property sale purchase and exchange. He had setup 20 provincial governorship called “Satrapies” each one was assessed for taxes that included colonized regions. He created economic turning point through International Trade.

         The best part of Cyrus and Darius were that they did not treat slaves badly as existed in Greece, Egypt, China and Mesopotamia; rather they paid remuneration for their labour, boosting up the economy and consumption.

         The Empire had acquired wealth through native & foreign taxes and revenue from dominating foreign trade and exchange.  For establishing economic and political supremacy it imported labour and raw materials to construct royal capital, boats, ships, roads, canals and strengthening Military power.

         Darius introduced Gold and Silver coins as universal currency; therefore, he had to amass Gold, Siler and other precious metals from all over the trading nations or taxes from the colonies.  Trade expansion and surplus trade balance became motive of the regime.  This way he retained commanding position world over. The strong wealth accumulation instinct motivated him to carry on colonizing regions.

         Most colonized regions were / are with rich resources. Purpose of all invasions carried out in the past, present or future are to source raw material, resources and slaves at scanty cost or no cost or increase supply of finished goods to production banned colonies. Border dispute too accounts to winning governing control on resources or security.

         Invading countries disintegrate or devastate is to weaken structure and economy of a country, in order to establish dominance on resources and trade is also a form of colonization. This way invader gains control on the cost and delivery on import, besides this, investments on aid and assistance supplied improves colonizer’s economy.

         The colonization helped Darius the upper hand on import and export resulting huge revenue. In one way this system is called “Mercantilism Economics” where Governments or Regimes make huge profit on foreign trade by reducing import value against the export value or import raw material and add value to it, then export back to same country at much higher value. By this way difference in balance is received in precious metals. By colonizing regions, it can impose legislations that prevents colony to manufacture.  

         The trade supremacy and huge taxation did not last long. Greek cities Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, under Persian rule revolted.

         Darius dynasty could have faced resistance for imposing huge taxes and tariffs OR non cooperation that refrained from buying Persian goods (as they were very expensive), OR Main land Greeks provoked its states to revolt against the colonizer. This headed to non cooperation war fuelling to military war. Darius raided mainland of Greece to teach a lesson but got defeated and suffered heavy causalities.   Rise of a man named “Great Alexander” from Macedonia Greece, who defeated and forced the Great Darius to abscond. Finally he got murdered by his own men.

Be Cautious: Above information about economics are only basics based on my assumptions, may not be correct so use only if your teachers are satisfied. For history I referred Wikipedia and other sources whose links are cited.

Management of Economy by individuals is based on what they earn and how they spend. There is difference in consumer behaviour by standard: Poor, Middle income and Rich. Management of each category is different. Similarly, we see different behaviours of population of developing and developed world. In developing countries lack of resources trigger poverty on the other hand people of developed countries have high living cost to maintain the standard, such as insurances from life to car, taxes from income to expenditure, house hold electric goods to textiles. The management is how to squeeze or live with what is earned, so the balance of payment and receipt are equal. Management fails when the expenditure inflates and liabilities rise. Many are poor because the cost of living is very high and most of them are unavoidable expenses. Similar situation is with the industries when costs of living of individuals become minimum wage standard results extra cost of production passed to consumers that blows up inflation.

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Best education is to gain positive knowledge to survive and perform. When in the education, seeking highest marks becomes priority the objective is only how to get best percentage by hook or crook. Is this not the guidelines for children to become selfish!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Sadashivan’s quotes

"Life seems sometimes like nothing more than a series of losses, from beginning to end. That's the given. How you respond to those losses, what you make of what's left, that's the part you have to make up as you go."— Katharine Weber

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child labour photos, rural poverty photos, urban poverty photos, Ignoring rural development, Economics AND Management, Why women are poor and oppressed? TRADE & POVERTY relation, What is "BEHAVIOR", What is environment? Emotion is a reaction to the influence, What is culture? Africa to Indus-Valley (Dravidian,) Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age), What is religion and how did it exist, What is civilization?, "ART" is reflection of identity!!! "Stress", "LOVE" is SUBMISSION to the ATTRACTION!!! THE COMMON LANGUAGES, Learning the skill to survive is "EDUCATION" !!! Evolution is a process for suitability !!!! Sex & Attraction, enjoy tribal dance click photos, Urbanization and the Future World, movies - videos, Handmade rugs/ carpets process photographs, social study books, SOCIAL STUDY TRAVEL LINKS.