Mycenaeans, prior to emergence as civilization, was close race of Minoans
as the religious and cultural practices
were similar. “Mother Goddess” the most significant idol of fertility in
Minoans culture was present in the minds of Mycenaeans people and farmers too,
conducted rituals before and after the harvest, similarly, male God rituals too
shared by both regions. Other
in Architectural designs and palace layout open for all except royal rooms. Lot
of decorative ideas in palaces were similar.
Priestesses participated in temple rituals in
Minoan type dresses with breast exposed to mark significance of fertility. Both
civilizations gave importance to fertility, especially, the agricultural
and Minoan court
women looked alike.
was similarity in pottery
style and art. Depicts cultural similarity in both cultures.
system too matched with Minoans.
Cultural and religious practice similarities
in the regions made researchers and Archaeologists reach conclusion that
Minoan’s influence dominated the Mycenaeans.
Mother Goddess and Harvest rituals didn’t persist
only in Crete or Mycenae, rather, the systems prevailed in Indus
Egypt, Persia, Babylonia and
of Mother Goddesses).
In all the civilizations Temples and the Priests were the final authorities
next to the regime. People of all categories followed and honoured temple laws.
Does this mean that there was some link
among these civilizations? Was it the result of community’s migration and
settling? Was it the invasion led to influence own culture and religion? Was it
because of foreign relationship and cultural exchange? If one developed pottery
the other too may be with little difference in the shape or art. The Wine first
developed by Minoans and Mycenaeans
became regular consumption in other parts of the world. Nevertheless, these cultural
exchanges evolved social and economic growth.
According to the archaeological evidence Neolithic
or New Stone Age period in Greece lasted 6800-3200 BC was populated by
primitives, were engaged in fishing, traditional agriculture and mastered in
animal husbandry. During same era in around 3500BC the migration began
to take shape in north
due to high population
The indigenous people moved towards other areas including (Mikines) Mycenae and began to evolve;
one of the examples was traces fragments of pottery. This indicates the industrial
development took place. Writing technique existed during 3500BC in Main land Greece
implies even other regions of Greece like Mycenae too was familiar with the
ancient writing tablets.
During the period (4000-3000BC) Central Asia
wrecked by devastation forced community “Indo-European” to migrate
widespread towards Asia, and Europe. Origins of Indo-European are still a contradictory
subject as 1st theory(Creighton University): It's speculated that
the so called Kurgan were the original Indo-European people; lived northwest of
the Caucasus, north of the Caspian Sea, as early as the fifth millennium B.C
theory: Science daily-New research links
the origins of Indo-European with the spread of farming from Anatolia 8000-9500 years ago. 3rd
Indus Valley was first colonized after early humans left Africa- Aryans never migrated
to Indus-Valley rather first people of India (Indus Valley) migrated towards
north to populate china and South-East Asia. Eventually, some of them could have
become Early Indo-Europeans. We cannot simply neglect the possibility of people of
Indus-Valley (map) as the first Indo-Europeans
migrants, because rituals of Gods-Goddesses, religious practices and cultural
similarities among Egyptians, Persian, Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Mesopotamia were
familiar. However, archaeology is a system of digging out human history from
the past, is based on assumptions of closest acceptable theory to researchers
and archaeologists. The conclusion is based on investigating the excavated
articles and structures or artifacts or idols.
Sanskrit Language of Indo-Europeans
in migrated regions shaped into different variant lingos, in accordance to integration
into culture and behaviour of already existing natives. Indo Europeans on
arrival, adopted the same systems of the natives, that is the reason, pure Sanskrit
was not spoken rather the Sanskrit got merged into the respective native
languages. Thus it clarifies Indo-Europeans had never indented to invade;
rather, their intention was to look for source for survival. Had they invaded,
they would have influenced own systems, religion and language. It took generations
to merge with the natives, even inter-marriage could have helped or kids and
their kids transformed language. Similarity
of words still can be found in the languages spoken wherever Indo-European
migrated, for example Latin and English. Indo European Languages (Britanica.com)
an accurate idea of the true bounds of the Indo-European family became possible
only when, in the 16th century, Europeans began to learn Sanskrit.
has still Sanskrit speaking villages. These 5 villages are: Mattur or Muttoor (Karnataka), Hosahalli
(Karnataka), Jhiri (Madhya Pradesh, Mohad
(Madhya Pradesh) Baghuwar (Madhya Pradesh). The languages develop with the
cultural mix up; the living example is each 100-200kms we move, find different accent
with different touch ups.
Indo-European Migrants, around 2800BC
settled in Mycenae, along with the existing
indigenous tribes. While migrating they brought their assets including the livestock
like horse, sheep, donkey, valuable, wheeled wagons and other expertises. Lived
peacefully blending in with the natives and accepted the influence of Minoans
of Crete, survived by agriculture and livestock. The habitants followed the
same guided economic and cultural routes by the Minoans. It could have been
possible that, besides,
their intellectual and efficient behaviour, their population grew at incredible
rate that gave dominant position in the region. (As
we can perceive from present situation in US white ruled will soon be in
minority And recent data indicate, world over Muslim
population is growing at speedy rate, by 2030 will reach 26.4% of total world
population, this situation will pursue Islamic dominance as already begun in Gulf
In the economics dictionary over population is disaster, on the other hand in
religious and political dictionary it is advantage for dominance. So the population
growth is a weapon and gift as well.
Bronze Age 1600BC “The Achaeans” established powerful
multi group cities of Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Athens, Thebes, Orchomenus, and
Iolkos. By instinct and by blood they were fierce warriors.
Possibility cannot be ruled out of clashes among states and races for dominance
took place before integrating. Although all the states were independent to have
own kings, yet the dominant state Mycenae became the central rule and
king was chieftain. The states were free to take own decisions and retained
feudalist rule. The rulers controlled
system, first all products had to arrive in the palace and then was
redistributed to the society. All transactions were recorded on tablets and supervisory
staves were appointed for distribution of ration to public. The Mycenaeans
followed two way systems of working. One worked in the palace for the rulers
and another carried business. People who worked in the palace had privilege to
own the business too.
The economy proceeded with exports of food, olive oil, scented oil, and wine.
was in high demand in Egypt due to total destruction of forests. Considering
competitive foreign agricultural market, they managed to bring cost down to
export in large scale. In 1375BC
calamities devastated Minoan Crete, and fell prey to its colony. The Mycenae
Took control of Knossos then began to establish own systems though they adopted
most of Minoan’s economic, culture and religious practices. The Cycladic
islands being used as international ports came in their control. These islands as
ports were also markets, where both buyers and sellers of food items to
precious metal gathered to decide price. They shifted this market as trading
centre and they became the established traders.
Invention of Linear B writing
system organized keeping records of incoming and outgoing.
The possibility cannot be ruled out of existence
of Trade Speculations, as rich palaces and rich foreign traders had fiscal
resources to hold stock for better exchange value. This phenomenon elaborated the
scope to the commodity market. The Mycenaeans as established traders had own
interest involved in this mercantile
system. In the time of unreliable trade practices: Mycenaeans had an
advantage of strong naval - military force and ships guaranteeing timely
delivery in perfect condition, built confidence in traders, also helped
importing on behalf of foreign importers and re-export after keeping margin.
The rice futures existed for the past 6000 year in China. Chinese main foreign
trade were of food grain, live stock and THE
SILK, traded with Indus
Valley, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Persia. This
system could have spread to other regions too, adopted by traders of import and
export. The system would have prevailed even in Mycenae, as they imported from Ancient
China too. The traders and investors on each contract were obliged to pay tax.
Commodity market is also a centre
where futures contracts for certain period, is
carried in order to avoid losses due to plummeting price in unwanted mishaps. In this system, for
guarantee 3rd party involves who is called “investor”. Both reach in
contract on settled price for certain period which is guaranteed by the investor
to the seller. If price goes down, the investor pays the difference to the producer.
If prices go up, the investor keeps the difference as profit. It is the best
interest of the investor to keep prices soaring. And if the investor guarantees
the buyer for escalating prices, the situation is opposite. However, this
system did happen in antiquity but not in present world, as the investors are
the stockists and power to create shortage for surging margins. *Under present
situation, the producer does
not gain as long as it sells to the traders. In most cases especially in
regions where producers do not have access delivering direct to the buyers, end
up delivering to wholesale markets, which, are managed by traders or stockists.
The role of producer ends after it sells off. Most traders / stockists are
speculative hoarders who are capitalists and have power to hoard produce for
long time or create artificial shortage. Now the Futures Market / contract are within
the grip of traders / stockists. This procedure through traders not only
creates artificial shortage rather pushes inflation.
Inflation of essential commodities inflicts not only on surging poverty but
also opens gate to recession*.
Mycenae was the powerful and dominant central political power in Greek
domain. Its political role was internationally significant. It had good foreign
policies, developed relationship with
Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria-Palestine, Cyprus and Anatolia. Relationship between
these regions was
positive to such an extent that exchanged token gifts and assistance as
solidarity. It happens when have common economic and political interest. In 1876 by Heinrich Schliemann discovered, greatest
single hoard of the wealth in Gold, silver, and ivory Tutankhamen's tomb. What does this mean? The possibilities of
gold stored with Tutankhamen could be financed by Mycenae to fund states for
public works or military build up Or Mycenaean kings savings stored with Egypt Or
trade deficit by heavy raw material import, paid back in valuables to balance.
Mycenaeans imported lot of raw material and precious metals, which, shipped by
adding value finished products all over. They were masters of ornament making in new fashions. Was so much in fashion that
even Aegean silver earrings,
worn by the Great Wife
of Ramesses II.
Requirement of huge trade surplus
to import what they did not have in house were metal, mineral, raw material,
gold, tin, ivory, amber, slaves and copper, organized by exports and trading. The
Import of minerals and metals helped them manufacture weapons
and shields, vases, ornaments, ships. Their weapons and
shields were made of
copper so were in high demand overseas. Textile industry was the major
industry, which produced Wool, fibre and cloths. Besides, they were exporting
to other parts of the world, internal economy boomed by generating significant
number of employees. With the exports they managed accumulating wealth
immensely. Wealth was used for:
and public work: The Mycenaeans were great engineers
designed and built bridges, fortification walls, beehive-shaped tombs, and
elaborate drainage and irrigation systems.
growth: Maritime controlled by Minoans Crete prior to
Mycenaeans capturing Knossos. Expanded the scope of island trading. As they were strong
traders controlled trade routes to eastern Mediterranean. The endeavour was
to arrange import of raw
material that lacked in their region. Through these routes they got contacts
many regions with whom they developed trade.
build up: the Mycenaeans were fierce warriors. They
strong military with friendly countries as assistance to fight the enemies. During
the war between Egypt and Libya,
Mycenaean came in assistance “were whites wore helmets and body shields” depicts
The Troy with its 4000 years of history came in occupation by
humans in early Bronze Age. First defensive wall in citadel was built
around 3000BC. It played
significant role in transition of European Civilization. The Troy city was a
strategic position on the Hellespont
now known as Dardanelles is a narrow Strait from Aegean to the Black sea
was significant position to control both sea traffic and land caravans going
between Asia and Europe, was also major trading port. In 1870, Henrich
Schliemann an archaeologist excavated and discovered treasure of golden
earrings, hairpins, and bracelets indicate the richness of this region.
Probably the trade interest conflicted could have effected Trojan War due to
trade dispute as explained in “Porter
Gaud education website - Trojan
tribute, Commercial rivalry with Mycenaean cities, May have been taxing or blocking
sources of metals badly needed by Myceaean Greeks, and Extortion.” These
could be the major
reasons Trojan wars as either Mycenaeans refused to give tax or Trojans
demanded more charges. Refusing to pay resulted to blocking urgent shipment,
exasperated Mycenae and allied states to raid Troy. Deterioration of trade
relationship and conflicting economic interest provoked both and their allies
to choose war as an option for settlement, which, lasted for decades was enough
reason to weaken Mycenae and devastate Troy. There are more of Mythical
views from Iliad
of Homer Helen of Greece was seduced by Paris of Troy caused war. The facts
BBC videos Part1,
Part 2, Part
Already weak due to clinging into war for
decades to claim superiority, collapsed Mycenaean civilization in around
1100BC. 1st version of collapse - The cost of prolonging war plunged
fiscal crisis to economic disaster, reducing Government expenses, reduced
production thus the exports, failing to honour economic commitment within and overseas
fuelled thrusting disintegration or revolt among states and overseas aggression.
2nd version - the gap between
poor and rich widened drastically which led to weaken further. 3rd version
– The Dorians launched
aggression, but researches contradict this theory saying that it was part
of Greece or its ally. 4th version - Traitors
from sea invaded same as they did in Levant, Anatolia and Egypt.
Whether civilizations lasted or not for
economic reason, the people since the Stone Age kept migrating from one area to
another. After Mycenae’s destruction due to war, economic crisis, unemployment,
internal unrest, rivalries, or natural calamities, whatever was the reason? People
were left with no choice but to escape from insecure habitation optioned them
to migrate to other parts of Greece. That does not mean the end of Mycenaeans
rather many of them continued who were not widely affected. In most cases, normally
unruly atmosphere prevails in urban cities which might have been affected. Rural
villages remained unaffected unless
there was natural catastrophe.
The date of migration cannot be fixed 1200-1100BC,
had begun long ago (as
happening in present time by some races in Europe, US and Asia). Infiltration in the
form of refugees or other form of migration to other regions had some reasons:
interest migrates and increases population for dominating position of religion.
This is long term silent form of silent invasion. It is painless and by the
time become aware, it is already late.
unruly administration or natural catastrophe to migrate for freedom and
and unemployment or better opportunity.
The options of invasions – Physical encounter: There
possibility of physical encounter as Dorians were close to other Macedonian
inhabitants rather than the Mycenaean. The economy and the trade interest clash
or non economic commitments could have influenced Dorians to invade the weak
country. Silent invasion: This
weapon is political and cultural interest. First people migrated as refugees
provided origin region had suffered devastation of any reason or migrated for
economic reasons. Step by step they increased population to the level they
could influence the regime. This process facilitated migrant communities to put
forward their demand social dominance. Failure
to honour the demand resulted social unrest, which, persuaded Dorians
interference and invade in protection of own communities. Dorians took Mycenae,
Crete, Athens and other Greeks parts in their control.