The Mycenaeans were excellent sailors (
The Lion Gate entrance of Mycenae creates a backdrop as a champion is taxied to battle by chariot. Upon returning from Troy, King Agamemnon is murdered by his wife, Clytemnestra. This murder was pay back because Agamemnon sacrificed their daughter, Iphigenia, so the gods would grant winds to the sails of the Greek boats leaving Aulis in Greece for Troy.
Heinrich Schielmann discovered shaft burial graves in a circular cemetery within the walls of Mycena

The mother Goddesses protector from the catastrophe, dominated all the civilizations.

Mycenae became the central rule and king was chieftain. The states were free to take own decisions and retained feudalist rule

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Economics and Mycenaeans Civilization (Greek)

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Seems Ancient Mycenaeans, prior to emergence as civilization, was close race of Minoans as the religious and cultural practices were similar. “Mother Goddess” the most significant idol of fertility in Minoans culture was present in the minds of Mycenaeans people and farmers too, conducted rituals before and after the harvest, similarly, male God rituals too shared by both regions. Other similarities:

         Similarity in Architectural designs and palace layout open for all except royal rooms. Lot of decorative ideas in palaces were similar.

         Priestesses participated in temple rituals in Minoan type dresses with breast exposed to mark significance of fertility. Both civilizations gave importance to fertility, especially, the agricultural population.

         Mycenaeans and Minoan court women looked alike.

         There was similarity in pottery style and art. Depicts cultural similarity in both cultures.

          Mycenaeans writing system too matched with Minoans.


Cultural and religious practice similarities in the regions made researchers and Archaeologists reach conclusion that Minoan’s influence dominated the Mycenaeans.

Mother Goddess and Harvest rituals didn’t persist only in Crete or Mycenae, rather, the systems prevailed in Indus Valley (Pre Aryan migration), Egypt, Persia, Babylonia and Sumerian (Pictures of Mother Goddesses). In all the civilizations Temples and the Priests were the final authorities next to the regime. People of all categories followed and honoured temple laws.  Does this mean that there was some link among these civilizations? Was it the result of community’s migration and settling? Was it the invasion led to influence own culture and religion? Was it because of foreign relationship and cultural exchange? If one developed pottery the other too may be with little difference in the shape or art.  The Wine first developed by Minoans and Mycenaeans became regular consumption in other parts of the world. Nevertheless, these cultural exchanges evolved social and economic growth.

According to the archaeological evidence Neolithic or New Stone Age period in Greece lasted 6800-3200 BC was populated by primitives, were engaged in fishing, traditional agriculture and mastered in animal husbandry. During same era in around 3500BC the migration began to take shape in north of Greece due to high population crowd. The indigenous people moved towards other areas including (Mikines) Mycenae and began to evolve; one of the examples was traces fragments of pottery. This indicates the industrial development took place. Writing technique existed during 3500BC in Main land Greece implies even other regions of Greece like Mycenae too was familiar with the ancient writing tablets.

During the period (4000-3000BC) Central Asia wrecked by devastation forced community “Indo-European” to migrate widespread towards Asia, and Europe. Origins of Indo-European are still a contradictory subject as 1st theory(Creighton University): It's speculated that the so called Kurgan were the original Indo-European people; lived northwest of the Caucasus, north of the Caspian Sea, as early as the fifth millennium B.C (Map). 2nd theory: Science daily-New research links the origins of Indo-European with the spread of farming from Anatolia 8000-9500 years ago. 3rd theory (History files UK): Indus Valley was first colonized after early humans left Africa- Aryans never migrated to Indus-Valley rather first people of India (Indus Valley) migrated towards north to populate china and South-East Asia. Eventually, some of them could have become Early Indo-Europeans. We cannot simply neglect the possibility of people of Indus-Valley (map) as the first Indo-Europeans migrants, because rituals of Gods-Goddesses, religious practices and cultural similarities among Egyptians, Persian, Minoans, Mycenaeans, and Mesopotamia were familiar. However, archaeology is a system of digging out human history from the past, is based on assumptions of closest acceptable theory to researchers and archaeologists. The conclusion is based on investigating the excavated articles and structures or artifacts or idols.

The Sanskrit Language of Indo-Europeans in migrated regions shaped into different variant lingos, in accordance to integration into culture and behaviour of already existing natives. Indo Europeans on arrival, adopted the same systems of the natives, that is the reason, pure Sanskrit was not spoken rather the Sanskrit got merged into the respective native languages. Thus it clarifies Indo-Europeans had never indented to invade; rather, their intention was to look for source for survival. Had they invaded, they would have influenced own systems, religion and language. It took generations to merge with the natives, even inter-marriage could have helped or kids and their kids transformed language. Similarity of words still can be found in the languages spoken wherever Indo-European migrated, for example Latin and English. Indo European Languages ( an accurate idea of the true bounds of the Indo-European family became possible only when, in the 16th century, Europeans began to learn Sanskrit. India has still Sanskrit speaking villages. These 5 villages are: Mattur or Muttoor (Karnataka), Hosahalli (Karnataka), Jhiri (Madhya Pradesh, Mohad (Madhya Pradesh) Baghuwar (Madhya Pradesh). The languages develop with the cultural mix up; the living example is each 100-200kms we move, find different accent with different touch ups.

Indo-European Migrants, around 2800BC settled in Mycenae, along with the existing indigenous tribes. While migrating they brought their assets including the livestock like horse, sheep, donkey, valuable, wheeled wagons and other expertises. Lived peacefully blending in with the natives and accepted the influence of Minoans of Crete, survived by agriculture and livestock. The habitants followed the same guided economic and cultural routes by the Minoans.  It could have been possible that, besides, their intellectual and efficient behaviour, their population grew at incredible rate that gave dominant position in the region. (As we can perceive from present situation in US white ruled will soon be in minority And recent data indicate, world over Muslim population is growing at speedy rate, by 2030 will reach 26.4% of total world population, this situation will pursue Islamic dominance as already begun in Gulf countries), In the economics dictionary over population is disaster, on the other hand in religious and political dictionary it is advantage for dominance. So the population growth is a weapon and gift as well.

In the Bronze Age 1600BC “The Achaeans established powerful multi group cities of Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Athens, Thebes, Orchomenus, and Iolkos. By instinct and by blood they were fierce warriors. Possibility cannot be ruled out of clashes among states and races for dominance took place before integrating. Although all the states were independent to have own kings, yet the dominant state Mycenae became the central rule and king was chieftain. The states were free to take own decisions and retained feudalist rule. The rulers controlled the distribution system, first all products had to arrive in the palace and then was redistributed to the society. All transactions were recorded on tablets and supervisory staves were appointed for distribution of ration to public. The Mycenaeans followed two way systems of working. One worked in the palace for the rulers and another carried business. People who worked in the palace had privilege to own the business too.

The economy proceeded with exports of food, olive oil, scented oil, and wine. Timber was in high demand in Egypt due to total destruction of forests. Considering competitive foreign agricultural market, they managed to bring cost down to export in large scale. In 1375BC calamities devastated Minoan Crete, and fell prey to its colony. The Mycenae Took control of Knossos then began to establish own systems though they adopted most of Minoan’s economic, culture and religious practices. The Cycladic islands being used as international ports came in their control. These islands as ports were also markets, where both buyers and sellers of food items to precious metal gathered to decide price. They shifted this market as trading centre and they became the established traders. Invention of Linear B writing system organized keeping records of incoming and outgoing.

The possibility cannot be ruled out of existence of Trade Speculations, as rich palaces and rich foreign traders had fiscal resources to hold stock for better exchange value. This phenomenon elaborated the scope to the commodity market. The Mycenaeans as established traders had own interest involved in this mercantile system. In the time of unreliable trade practices: Mycenaeans had an advantage of strong naval - military force and ships guaranteeing timely delivery in perfect condition, built confidence in traders, also helped importing on behalf of foreign importers and re-export after keeping margin.

The rice futures existed for the past 6000 year in China. Chinese main foreign trade were of food grain, live stock and THE SILK, traded with Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Persia. This system could have spread to other regions too, adopted by traders of import and export. The system would have prevailed even in Mycenae, as they imported from Ancient China too. The traders and investors on each contract were obliged to pay tax.

Commodity market is also a centre where futures contracts for certain period, is carried in order to avoid losses due to plummeting price in unwanted mishaps. In this system, for guarantee 3rd party involves who is called “investor”. Both reach in contract on settled price for certain period which is guaranteed by the investor to the seller. If price goes down, the investor pays the difference to the producer. If prices go up, the investor keeps the difference as profit. It is the best interest of the investor to keep prices soaring. And if the investor guarantees the buyer for escalating prices, the situation is opposite. However, this system did happen in antiquity but not in present world, as the investors are the stockists and power to create shortage for surging margins.  *Under present situation, the producer does not gain as long as it sells to the traders. In most cases especially in regions where producers do not have access delivering direct to the buyers, end up delivering to wholesale markets, which, are managed by traders or stockists. The role of producer ends after it sells off. Most traders / stockists are speculative hoarders who are capitalists and have power to hoard produce for long time or create artificial shortage. Now the Futures Market / contract are within the grip of traders / stockists. This procedure through traders not only creates artificial shortage rather pushes inflation. Inflation of essential commodities inflicts not only on surging poverty but also opens gate to recession*.

Mycenae was the powerful and dominant central political power in Greek domain. Its political role was internationally significant. It had good foreign policies, developed relationship with Mesopotamia, Egypt, Syria-Palestine, Cyprus and Anatolia. Relationship between these regions was positive to such an extent that exchanged token gifts and assistance as solidarity. It happens when have common economic and political interest. In 1876 by Heinrich Schliemann discovered, greatest single hoard of the wealth in Gold, silver, and ivory Tutankhamen's tomb. What does this mean? The possibilities of gold stored with Tutankhamen could be financed by Mycenae to fund states for public works or military build up Or Mycenaean kings savings stored with Egypt Or trade deficit by heavy raw material import, paid back in valuables to balance. Mycenaeans imported lot of raw material and precious metals, which, shipped by adding value finished products all over. They were masters of ornament making in new fashions. Was so much in fashion that even Aegean silver earrings, worn by the Great Wife of Ramesses II.

Requirement of huge trade surplus to import what they did not have in house were metal, mineral, raw material, gold, tin, ivory, amber, slaves and copper, organized by exports and trading. The Import of minerals and metals helped them manufacture weapons and shields, vases, ornaments, ships. Their weapons and shields were made of copper so were in high demand overseas. Textile industry was the major industry, which produced Wool, fibre and cloths. Besides, they were exporting to other parts of the world, internal economy boomed by generating significant number of employees. With the exports they managed accumulating wealth immensely. Wealth was used for:

         Economy and public work: The Mycenaeans were great engineers who designed and built bridges, fortification walls, beehive-shaped tombs, and elaborate drainage and irrigation systems.

         Maritime growth: Maritime controlled by Minoans Crete prior to Mycenaeans capturing Knossos. Expanded the scope of island trading. As they were strong traders controlled trade routes to eastern Mediterranean.  The endeavour was to arrange import of raw material that lacked in their region.  Through these routes they got contacts with many regions with whom they developed trade.

         Military build up: the Mycenaeans were fierce warriors. They shared their strong military with friendly countries as assistance to fight the enemies. During the war between Egypt and Libya, Mycenaean came in assistance “were whites wore helmets and body shields” depicts defence cooperation.  

The Troy with its 4000 years of history came in occupation by humans in early Bronze Age. First defensive wall in citadel was built around 3000BC. It played significant role in transition of European Civilization. The Troy city was a strategic position on the Hellespont now known as Dardanelles is a narrow Strait from Aegean to the Black sea was significant position to control both sea traffic and land caravans going between Asia and Europe, was also major trading port. In 1870, Henrich Schliemann an archaeologist excavated and discovered treasure of golden earrings, hairpins, and bracelets indicate the richness of this region. Probably the trade interest conflicted could have effected Trojan War due to trade dispute as explained in “Porter Gaud education website - Trojan demands for tribute, Commercial rivalry with Mycenaean cities,  May have been taxing or blocking Anotolian sources of metals badly needed by Myceaean Greeks,  and Extortion.” These could be the major reasons Trojan wars as either Mycenaeans refused to give tax or Trojans demanded more charges. Refusing to pay resulted to blocking urgent shipment, exasperated Mycenae and allied states to raid Troy. Deterioration of trade relationship and conflicting economic interest provoked both and their allies to choose war as an option for settlement, which, lasted for decades was enough reason to weaken Mycenae and devastate Troy. There are more of Mythical views from Iliad of Homer Helen of Greece was seduced by Paris of Troy caused war. The facts BBC videos Part1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5.

Already weak due to clinging into war for decades to claim superiority, collapsed Mycenaean civilization in around 1100BC. 1st version of collapse - The cost of prolonging war plunged fiscal crisis to economic disaster, reducing Government expenses, reduced production thus the exports, failing to honour economic commitment within and overseas fuelled thrusting disintegration or revolt among states and overseas aggression.  2nd version - the gap between poor and rich widened drastically which led to weaken further. 3rd version – The Dorians launched aggression, but researches contradict this theory saying that it was part of Greece or its ally. 4th version -   Traitors from sea invaded same as they did in Levant, Anatolia and Egypt.   

Whether civilizations lasted or not for economic reason, the people since the Stone Age kept migrating from one area to another. After Mycenae’s destruction due to war, economic crisis, unemployment, internal unrest, rivalries, or natural calamities, whatever was the reason? People were left with no choice but to escape from insecure habitation optioned them to migrate to other parts of Greece. That does not mean the end of Mycenaeans rather many of them continued who were not widely affected. In most cases, normally unruly atmosphere prevails in urban cities which might have been affected.  Rural villages remained unaffected unless there was natural catastrophe.

The Dorians and Dark Age: 1st version - mythical name derived from the son “Dorus” of Helen, they migrated through central Greece into Peloponnesus probably between 1100 and 950BC and defeated Achaeans. Other scholars have different viewpoints 2nd version - Dorians the principal group of Hellenic tribes (this link also reflects the map as how they migrated) moved from Macedonia were the migrants.  They were diverse in way of life and social organization, varying from the populous trade centre of the city of Corinth, known for art and architecture, to the isolationist, military state of Lacedaemon or Sparta.  3rd version – Dorians were Mecedonian who migrated to Doris from Pindos were precisely from Lakmos region.  4th version – Dorians were a group of 3 tribes names Hyllies, Pamphyloi, and Dymanes were different races, derived name of Dorians from a small region Doris.

The date of migration cannot be fixed 1200-1100BC, had begun long ago (as happening in present time by some races in Europe, US and Asia). Infiltration in the form of refugees or other form of migration to other regions had some reasons:

         Political interest migrates and increases population for dominating position of religion. This is long term silent form of silent invasion. It is painless and by the time become aware, it is already late.

         Inland unruly administration or natural catastrophe to migrate for freedom and security.

         Starvation and unemployment or better opportunity.


The options of invasions – Physical encounter: There is possibility of physical encounter as Dorians were close to other Macedonian inhabitants rather than the Mycenaean. The economy and the trade interest clash or non economic commitments could have influenced Dorians to invade the weak country. Silent invasion: This weapon is political and cultural interest. First people migrated as refugees provided origin region had suffered devastation of any reason or migrated for economic reasons. Step by step they increased population to the level they could influence the regime. This process facilitated migrant communities to put forward their demand social dominance.  Failure to honour the demand resulted social unrest, which, persuaded Dorians interference and invade in protection of own communities. Dorians took Mycenae, Crete, Athens and other Greeks parts in their control.

Natale con Opodo - 728x90

Nearly 10 million Indo-Aryans (Kshatriya-Rajput) scattered inhabitants of Europe are Gypsies” “Roma”. Migrated during 1000AD from Indian State of Rajasthan were known as “Banjara Tribes”. These Highly skilled and cultured people were warriors got defeated by invader Mahmud Ghaznavi or wandered in search of better opportunities.  Since then they had been wandering from region to region. Initially they survived by making iron hand tools such as swords, shields, hammers and industrial tools. Still we can find traces of this community in road side of Indian capital and around small scale industrial towns. As the demand for hand weapons dropped they are now into making stone grinders and iron tools used in Indian households.  Below are the pictures of Kyashtriya  high graded caste Rajputs, we now call them Banjara, Gypsy, Romany, Romanies, Romanis, Romani, Roma or Roms migrated to world over:

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They are still on the move

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Women in group enjying hookka

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still continuing ancient occupation as black smith

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Hand tools they make

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Government provision of lavatory

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raising cattle

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woman enjoying tobacco smoke (hukka)

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The Indian Roma, Gypsys are heading to modern life

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Indian Gypsy beauty girl posing for photograph

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ancient tools are still followed and they make money

Be Cautious: Above information about economics are only basics based on my assumptions, may not be correct so use only if your teachers are satisfied. For history I referred Wikipedia and other sources whose links are cited.

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Best education is to gain positive knowledge to survive and perform. When in the education, seeking highest marks becomes priority the objective is only how to get best percentage by hook or crook. Is this not the guidelines for children to become selfish!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Sadashivan’s quotes

"Life seems sometimes like nothing more than a series of losses, from beginning to end. That's the given. How you respond to those losses, what you make of what's left, that's the part you have to make up as you go."— Katharine Weber

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