Roman superior wearing the Hindu dhoti, chappals (sandals) and Hindu marks on his neck and forehead

Hindu deity Shiva northern Italy was known as Etruria

Shiva: The Wild God of Power and Ecstasy

Decoding Rig-Veda: For the Knowledge of Science

An Ornament for Jewels: Love Poems for the Lord of Gods, by Venkatesa

The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism

The Principal Upanishads

the God is within you (soul) and me. Mantras are to rejuvenate, activate the self (Atma). Mantra cleans and revives to charge the real self (Atma), that revived Atma becomes God. click this youtube video

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Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age)

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Veda is manuscript of spiritual knowledge for conducting duties: Krnvanto visvam aryam (Rgveda 9.63.5) inscribes – all of us make universe Arya, noble (Aryan), defines the meaning of Aryan as spiritually talented. In simple, Individual who is spiritually proficient and exercises in one’s life is ornamented as ‘Aryan’. “(Srimad Bhagavatam 6.16.43) defines Aryan as,  na - not; vyabhicarati – fails; tava – Your; Iksa – outlook; yaya – by which; hi - indeed; abhihitah – declared; bhagavatah – in relationship with your instructions and activities; dharmah – religious principle; sthira – non-moving; cara – moving; sattva-kadambesu – among the living entities; aprthak-dhiyah – who do not consider distinctions; yam – which; upasate – follow; tu – certainly; aryah – those who are advanced in civilization.” Acharyah: Is the respectable name of scholar who is proficient to teach Vedic practice to society. Synopsis of Veda: Dharma – The sacred duties or responsibilities you are born for, Karma – To perform Dharma, Yog – Outcome from Karma you conduct. Yoga – Exercise to uplift spirituality and energy. Yogi – Person, who follows Dharma to perform Karma, the holy meaning is who gains control of mind (Yoga) for spiritual attainment. In Veda manuscript these duties are elaborated in spiritual manner so each individual understands one’s duty towards society for foundation of disciplined civilization. The Veda was not founded in a day or year or by one tribe. Contribution of most tribe’s behaviours, culture, wisdom, and experiences, including exchange of ideas with foreign connections, were involved for centuries and may be millennium. In later stage Vedas were compiled around Lord Krishna’s time by Vyasa Krishna Dwaipayana. Each Veda consists of Samhitas (hymns), Brahmanas (rituals), Aranyakas (mysticism), and Upanishads (philosophies). There were two different categories of religious ritual performers, for example; Dasa and Dasyus did not perform sacrificial rituals as urban generation Puru and allied Tribes. Non believers were followers of Lord Shiva and Aryans (modern multi-cultured urban Dravidians) followed Lord Vishnu. The situation triggered conflicts between believers and non believers, resulting war to establish religious supremacy. As both were strong enemies for each other, end result did not favour either. Either’s supremacy could have destroyed defeated rival’s shrines, faith and beliefs and influenced own culture. Together had to compromise for solutions, the Aryans began respecting Shiva Identity and Pre Vedic Dravidians did the same which retained both religions intact. However, Harappan discovery of Shiva and his bull as Harappan seal (conveyance) symbolizes how honourable Lord Shiva was in foundation of Indus civilization, which was well preserved till the end of Vedic period. The peace and stability transformed Vedic knowledge further to Vedic science included mind control, maths, and medicine. Vedas are in four versions: Rig-Veda - for praising number of Gods, Sama-Veda – Veda of sacred songs, Yajur-Veda – Mantras (incantation) sung during religious activities, Atharva-Veda – the Veda of knowledge.  

Mantra (Incantation) - Mantras are the spiritual expressions of the manuscripts, which, scholars had derived by meditating (spiritual concentration). For example; Trimurti, Shiva, Abraham, Solomon, Noah, Vishnu, Krishna, Brahma, Durga, these all are the Mantras with specific meanings. Giving Mantra names to newly born child were - is still considered auspicious and that becomes the identity.  These words are mostly related to nature, natural laws and Karmas. Whispering Mantras is the way to purify, attain energy, enchant personality, balancing mind. Repeated whispering Mantras are to understand the meaning and vibrations released during whispering.  Understanding transforms life to spirituality. However, without understanding what is being whispered has no sense and does not help. The Mantras are to rejuvenate, activate the self.  Mantra cleans and revives to charge the personality to evolve as God (Paramatma or Super Soul). In other words, the Gene makes me ‘the me’, is known as Soul or Atma. All living species are connected to Nature and its environment (natural law). Action-reaction is in accordance with prevailing environment. Bad souls create bad environment and good souls help building environment that favours mankind. Therefore, we all pray, surrender and honour “Paramatma”, we call them Gods.” All the Gods have sacrificed for the society, did welfare and protected them. They created environment so people could live peacefully without fear. “Lord Krishna addresses this doubt by explaining that - “Paramatma” the Supreme Soul is without a beginning, without material attributes, transcendental, immutable, and imperishable. Therefore, Paramatma although residing in a physical body which has a beginning and is perishable, possessive of attributes and subject to karma it Paramatma is unaffected by the result of any action as it only monitors and never acts.” The Mantras are designed to create vibration in atmosphere which helps curing ill health and bad spirits.  The book Principal Upanishad page NO: 113 – ‘jitendriyas almarater budhasyagrhasramah kim tu karoty avadyam’. In the Bhagavata Purana it is said that a house is not prison for one who has controlled his senses, delights in spirit and is eager for knowledge. The same book page NO: 53 - explains Brahman denotes the ritual and so is regarded as omnipotent. He who knows Brahman knows and controls the universe. Brahman becomes the primal principle and guiding spirit of the universe. There is nothing more ancient or brighter than this Brahman.” In later thought, Brahman meant wisdom or Veda. Finally the Vedic age contribution to the universe is the spirituality way of life.

The Blue God of Judaism (written by Rabbi Robert) – The God that Jews worship is as blue as the Hindu God Shiva, the supreme being in Shaivism, the oldest sect within Hinduism. In the same ways, the ancient Hebrews were more similar to modern-day Hindus than the Jews.” “Gods of Love and Ecstasy (Book by Alain Danielou) – The myths concerning the young God and the Cretan goddess are similar to those of Shiva and Parvati.” “Dalit: The downtrodden of India (Book by Himansu Charan) – The Sumerian moon god, Nannar, is the Sivan of the Dravidians and the multi armed Ishtar of Ur with her lion is the Kali of the Dravidians.” “The Return of the Serpents of Wisdom (book by mark amaru) – Shiva the lord of the Nagas, the figure of Shiva may have come from Atlantis or at least been influenced by Atlantean descendants who travelled to Bharata Varsha from their native Egypt. His Character was presumably inspired by Ptah-Osiris, the principal god of Memphis, Egypt.” “The book by Hyde Clarke, Charles Serpent and Siva Worship and Mythology in the Central America, Africa and Asia – describes Shiva or Shivatt was the Mexican God of war. In the Table of Shibu names, a few words belonging to the series are introduced, but as a general principle, the names of great local god of African tribes conform with navel and snake, like sibu”. Prior to Vedic knowledge all were Pre-Vedic Dravidians, cult of mother-Godess or Linga and Yoni originated to them. Pre Vedic influence intensified by migrations towards Himalayan Mountains and across regions when rivers dried up. Among migrants were Sibu, Shibarai, Sora, Guna, and Shibi tribes all of them claim Lord Shiva was their chief. Finally integrated with Kinnars, Kilinds, Kirats, Khasas and Darads tribes, already settled. Bhil and Gond tribes too claim Shiva was their ancestor and was a hunter. Naga sadhus are considered highest and most revered devotees of Lost Shiva. “Naga identity (a book by Braja Bihari page no:109) – The ancient Indian literature uses the term Kirata for the Indo Mogoloid people which focuses the Nagas. Kiratas are mentioned in the Mahabharata as the best born Kshatriyas (worrior cast). Lord Shiva takes the grab of Kirata”. Lord Shiva on his conveyance “Bull” was fierce destroyer in war, society protector, self-sacrifice, strong love maker, fertility God and saviour. Especially Aryans too admitted fearsome and destroyer. He dressed up tiger skin fought with Trishool and used Dambru as music instruments signify he belonged to the hunter tribe. Linking Himalayan Mountain focuses he married Parvati of Kirati tribes, thus Naga’s claim to un-ignorable. If we study relation of Lord Shiva with other civilizations, (as links cited in this paragraph) people chanted same God with different names. However, there is no authentic evidence of Lord Shiva as a human being. Was it pre Aryan spiritual Mythical Mantra (incantation) name? Or had he physically lived and popularity intensified through his Meditation, Karma and Yoga. Nevertheless, it is sure he was universal, God of all the Gods. Pre Vedic period functioned significantly as regards to influencing spiritual and religion on all the civilizations.

My observation is that Aryans does not mean Indo-European invaders. Indeed, people from central and West Asia had migrated and ‘not exodus’ but was for surviving opportunities, followed Indus Valley culture. Indus Valley civilization was already a group of urban cities and multi cultured as a result of in and out migrations, similar to present day developed Europe and America, where urban population is migrant from rural villages, and nearly 20-30% African, East Europeans and Asian. Many foreign immigrants are citizens holding legislative responsibilities. Flourishing economic and cultural growth triggered migrations for opportunities, security, and cultural gain.  I observe the difference between Aryan and Non Aryan is rural tribes and urban learned population. Even today urban dwellers have more opportunities to evolve than the rural gentry. There is easy noticeable shift in rural and urban behavioural appearance. Rural population’s behaviour evolves in accordance to agricultural or rural activities; on the other hand, urban inhabitants develop extensively as a result of easy access to information, education and opportunities. Antiquity was hungry for Vedic knowledge, as was revolutionised theory of art of living. However, privilege to access Vedic knowledge was not widespread rather was limited to aristocrats or elites. Later as the trade and culture flourished more and more people were integrated. Vedic age began by evolving role of temples, which played important role for spreading Veda culture.

Early Vedic age had three social classes; nobles’ commons and Dasas (slaves). Nobles had special privilege to rule and carry spiritual activities. Commons were ordinary citizens who did not participate in dignified functions but followed same religious rituals, could be they were not involved or tribes with less identity. Commons and Dasas too could enjoy integrating in noble class provided they succeeded achieving scholarly requirements, as Valmiki was from lowest class who became Muni (saint) after writing Ramayana. “An article written by Rit Nosotro Sumerians vs. Harappans – While the Sumerians developed the world’s first monarchy, the Harappans may have developed the first democracy. Very little evidence has been found of a king in the Indus Valley. In the Indus Valley however the lowest class contained as servants, workers and wage earners”. Later during this period, Aryan division was formulated according to the Karma: Athravan (priests) Rathaeshtar (Warriors) Vastrya-fshuyat (peasantry) Dasa or Dasyu remained lowest class. Antiquity system of slavery prevailed in all the civilizations and Vedic civilization was no exception. Aborigines of different races in Stone Age migrations not parallel intellect, given choice to integrate in local population did labour in agriculture and domestic, which existed even during pre Vedic period. War prisoners and criminals were targeted for slavery; nevertheless, treatment to them was no less than other population except the binding of being slaves to serve masters. “A book none but India (Bharat) the cradle of Aryans, Sanskrit, Veda, & Swastika (page 133) describes – According to Vedic traditions ‘Dasa’ was never considered as slave. The word ‘Dasa’ in indic languages means servant. The Vedic (Hindu) society has never practiced shameful uncivilized slavery”. A book written by Upinder Singh “A history of ancient and early medieval India depicts - in three places in the Rig Veda, the term Krishna-tvach or asikni-tvach is applied to the Dasyus. This can be interpreted literally as dark skinned or as a figurative use of darkness.” Does this mean dark skin tribes were made to Dasa or Dasyu? Evidently, Dasa tribes were not made to slaves, as they were equally strong enemies, rather ‘Dasa’ and ‘Dasyu’ in Sanskrit denote ‘Devine’s servant’. Interpretation of Rig Vedic term dark or black skin does not go well with this civilization, as highest Gods of Hindus ‘Lord Krishna’ of Yadu (Later Yadav) tribes and ‘Lord Shiva’ of  Naga Kiratas, Bhil, sibu or whatever tribe (as is still unclear), too were dark skinned. In one passage of Rig Veda, the Dasas were described as anasa (Rig Veda V.29.10), means flat nose or mouth less. If they were so, would have migrated from Himalayan mountain regions their nose is flat and face but not dark skinned. So ‘Anasa’ may have philosophical meaning of poetic inscription of Rig Veda, shameless (बेशमॅ) and faceless. Dasas were used as labourers in agriculture fields, domestic and other economic activities, unlike Mesopotamia and Egypt civilizations Vedic Dasas were gifted land for own cultivation and food, in addition, owners gave them gifts during festivals. Although upper classes maintained distance from Dasas, yet they were treated with respect as Rig Veda defines ‘Dasa’ as ‘slave of Gods’. Over the time, in my opinion, economic advancement of aristocrats in late Vedic period, multi tribal wars for superiority, different tribes loosing wars were degraded and taken to slavery. In order to establish superiority aristocrats managed evolving division further to Brahmin (priests), Kshatriya (warriors), Vaishya (traders and agriculturalist) and last untouchable Shudra (serving other three varnas). Shudra is the fourth Varna (class) as inscribed in Rig Veda. ( Shudra were originally one of the Aryan communities of solar race belonging to Kshatriya class. We can observe in present day south and north part of India too, that there are many sub divisions of Shudra class engaged in different Karmas (occupations) were actually different tribes of Vedic age. 

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Be Cautious: Above informations are only basics based on my assumptions, may not be correct so use only if your teachers are satisfied. For history I referred Wikipedia and other sources whose links are cited.

Click links to View Rare Old Photos: Gandhi with his wife Kasturba Gandhi… 15th August 1947, First News Paper of INDEPENDENT INDIA… ... The front page of the April 16, 1912 evening edition of the Boston Globe, detailing the Titanic Disaster is shown… ... C. V. Raman - The Great Indian Physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect… ... In India First railway was built between Mumbai and thane... Star Cinema ( now at Pakistan ) 1943… ... The last train , Dhaka to Calcutta!!! Taken in 1947… ... the crown of India… ... Shooting-the-mgm-lion-logo-in-1924… ... Stalin, Lenin and Trotsky… ... An Awesome painting of Leonardo da vinci…... The original picture of Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai. This picture has been taken by German photographer Hoffman 160 years ago… ... British India and Afghanistan border - 1934… ... A rare one of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and his wife Eimilie Shenkl… ...

Best education is to gain positive knowledge to survive and perform. When in the education, seeking highest marks becomes priority the objective is only how to get best percentage by hook or crook. Is this not the guidelines for children to become selfish!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Sadashivan’s quotes

"Life seems sometimes like nothing more than a series of losses, from beginning to end. That's the given. How you respond to those losses, what you make of what's left, that's the part you have to make up as you go."— Katharine Weber

child labour photos, rural poverty photos, urban poverty photos, Ignoring rural development, Economics AND Management, Why women are poor and oppressed? TRADE & POVERTY relation, What is "BEHAVIOR", What is environment? Emotion is a reaction to the influence, What is culture? Africa to Indus-Valley (Dravidian,) Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age), What is religion and how did it exist, What is civilization?, "ART" is reflection of identity!!! "Stress", "LOVE" is SUBMISSION to the ATTRACTION!!! THE COMMON LANGUAGES, Learning the skill to survive is "EDUCATION" !!! Evolution is a process for suitability !!!! Sex & Attraction, enjoy tribal dance click photos, Urbanization and the Future World, movies - videos, Handmade rugs/ carpets process photographs, social study books, SOCIAL STUDY TRAVEL LINKS.