Bulls were worshipped in ancient Hindu Egypt as they are still worshipped in Hindu India

Ayu Devata is still invoked in Siberia

The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate

Meditations Through the Rig Veda: Four-Dimensional Man

The Deeper Dimension of Yoga: Theory and Practice

American Veda: From Emerson and the Beatles to Yoga and Meditation: How Indian Spirituality Changed the West

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Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age - page 2)

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Human realization towards spiritually began since the age of agriculture. It realized the annoyed and blessed nature’s actions, thus Saints (scholars) began exploring ways through meditation to interact and please nature. Meditation (Sadhana) (example youtube) is a ritual to interact with nature’s spirits and derive from it to strengthen self and others. Nature’s energy is diversified in two categories 1st Positive energy 2nd Negative energy. Pre – Vedic inhabitants realized the energy field in all species and nature, prompted to explore ways to interact with nature and species. “A book the principal Upanishads (page 154) describes: ‘dvaya ha prajapatyan, devas asuras ca. Tatah kaniyasa eva devah, jyayasa asurah, ta esu lokesv apardhanta, te ha deva ucuh, hantasuran yajna udgithenatyayameti - There are two classes of descendants of Praja-pati (lord of creatures), the Gods (dvaya) and the demon (asurah). The Gods and the demons refer to the organs, speech and the rest. They are inclined to sacred or worldly object, to good or evil, then become divine or demoniac, sastra-janita-jnana-karma-bhavitah dyotanat deva bhavanti, ta eve svabhavika-pratyaksanumana-janita-drsta-prayojana-karma-janana-bhavita asurah - They become Gods when they shine under the influence of thoughts and actions as taught by scriptures. These very organs become demons when they are influenced by their natural thoughts and actions based only on perception and inference and directed to visible ends.” No one escapes from environment’s influence, for example, we get exasperated during rage environment surrounds us. Negative characters create negative environment and tendency is to influence others. On the other hand pleasing positive environment enchants us. These are the environmental influence which prompts us to behave/react. Meditation is the ritual to enhance ‘Aura’ (field of bright radiation surrounding a person). Broad Aura strengthens body and mind to minimize diseases and prevents external negative environmental influence. Deeper version of Meditation is ‘Tapaseffort to achieve self-realization, sometimes involving solitude, hermitism or asceticism, it is derived from the word root तप्. “The Vedic nowledge online explains Tapas is extreme bodily mortification, long term sadhanas, such as meditating under a tree (example youtube) in one place for 12 years, taking a lifetime vow of silence and never speaking or writing or standing on one leg for a prescribed number of years. On a deeper level, tapa is the intense inner state of Kundalini ‘fire’ which stimulates mental anguish and separates the individual from society.” “Book deeper dimension of Yoga: Theory and Practice (Page 144) denotes – Tapas begins with temporarily or permanently denying ourselves a particular desire. The Bhagavad-Gita (17.14-16) speaks of three kinds of austerity or tapas: Austerity of body, speech and mind. Austerity of the body includes purity, rectitude, chastity, non-harming and making offering to higher beings, sages, Brahmins and honoured teachers. According to the Bhagavad-Gita (17-17), a rounded spiritual practice entails all three kinds of penance, and it is practiced with great faith (Shradha) and without expectation of reward.” “An article Tapas: Bringing intensity to our practice by Govindan Satchindananda – Tapas means intense practice or austerity. It refers to any intense or prolonged practice for self realization, which involves overcoming the natural tendencies of the body, emotions or mind. In Yoga Sutra II.1, Patanjali defines Kriya Yoga as: ‘tapas (intense practice), svadhyaya (self study) and isvara-pranidhana (devotion to the lord)’ In Sutra I.13 he explains clearly what are to practice: ‘In this contest, the effort to abide in (the cessation of identification with the fluctuations of consciousness) is a constant practice’. Tapas begin with an intention or a vow to deny oneself some indulgence. It could involve anything: a physical pleasure, certain food, casual sex, television, or if sitting in meditation, making an unnecessary movement. It involves standing back from any particular attachment or aversion, or any thought or feeling of ‘I am this feeling, sensation or thought’ and letting it go. This is known as vairagya or detachment.”

Indus culture and Gods prevailed almost everywhere in the world, signifies strong connections with other civilizations. “Some of these links explain as – (Stephen-knapp.com art gallery pictures) Hindu Egyptian Monarch of those times weaving urdhava pundra (V) on forehead, the deviser and builder of the very first pyramid during the third dynasty of Egypt. A Roman Superior wearing the Hindu dhoti and (V) mark on forehead. More photographic evidence discovered are black and white click links.” These links denote world was one, born in Africa and nurtured in Ancient Indus. Over the time expansions of civilization and over population bifurcated into many branches. “A book written by MM Ninan The Development of Hinduism (page NO: 242): “Abraham, a popular leader of masses lived approximately 2000BC in the NW Indian subcontinent-Asia Minor-Central Asia region. After his death in the tradition of spirit worship he became the “Bermer(u)” for Tulu tribes. Vedic Aryan Converted the Abraham legend into the Brahman, the supreme cosmic creative. Gradually with the time Brahman evolved into the God Brahma with ten or four heads in different Purana epics, by the time of composition of the Ramayana ca.800-500BC. Book also denotes According to the present scholarship they are the descendants of Abraham of the Old Testament originally from the Ur of Chaldea. The word Ur indicating village still forms part of the Dravidian languages.” Brahma means a creator of the world!! This comes true as Hebrews created the other religions of the world.   Tulu research blogpost – Tulu tribes of Pirak (Tulunad) were Dravidians of early form of Indus Valley, were followers of Lord Shiva. Question raises in my mind, does it mean Brahma (Abraham) was descendent of Lord Shiva?  The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols (book page 97) – The swastika was first identified with the Vedic God Vishnu, as the solar symbol of his fiery discus or chakra, or as the particular hair-curl or mark that adorns Vishnu’s breast, known as shrivasta. The Sanskrit word svastika derives from the root sv-asti, meaning well-being, food fortune, success, or prosperity.” “Ancient Idol of Lord Vishnu found during excavation in an old village in Russia’s Volga Region – The report says that the area in which the idol was found is called Staraya Maina. In Rig Veda Staraya Maina is the name of the land of 45 rivers (on whose banks the noble Rishis conducted the famous Horse Sacrifices), where the sun god descends into one fifty two forty seven. In Russian orthodox Christianity, worship is conducted very much like in Vishnu temples. Russians refer to the feast of Vizhnyir Ekoratsya Vikhunh, directly corresponding with Sanskrit Vaikhunda Ekhadasi” Indus Valley Aryan Civilization was much older than what is estimated, widespread expansion extending up to, in Rig Veda, rus soviath sapthamahanagaratham (the ancient and holy land of the 722 flying vehicle). “The book Mythology of Vishnu and his incarnations (page NO: 16) – Some scholars believe that originally Jagannatha of Puri was a tribal deity who was later recognized as Vishnu-Krishna. Suvira Jaiswal in her thesis origin and development opines that even Vasudeva and Balarama had an unmistakable tribal background. A Pallava inscription of the latter half of the 7th century A.D. enumerates 10 incarnation of Vishnu as follows: Fish, Tortoise, Boar, Man-lion, Parashu Rama, Rama, Bala Rama, Buddha, Kalki.” “An online encyclopaedia of mythology and folklore explains - Vishnu antecedents are among the Dravidian people in the pre-Aryan past of India, and his current stature is based on the amalgamation of many traditions. Vishnu was more easily absorbed in the Vedic Aryan pantheon more easily than Shiva since there are indications of Vishnu’s various forms in the earliest Upanishads.” As I observe: Human spiritual imaginations for praising nature’s powerful laws and its physical symbols Sun, moon, air, water, fire, food, birth, death, and so on, created Lord Brahma (creator) Lord Vishnu (protector) and Lord Shiva (demise) Were first explored Mantras of nature’s law, ‘our birth is for certain Dharma encoded by Brahma (creator) so we are born, then nurtured and protected (Vishnu) to attain vigour to perform Karma, finally all have to perish (Shiva) to sow seeds for new generation,Srimad Bhagavad Gita and Reincarnation by Swami Bhaktisiddhanta - Chapter 2, verse 22 - vasamsi jirnani yatha vihaya navani grhnati naro'parani tatha sarirani vihaya jirnany anyani samyati navani dehi - As a person gives up old and worn out garments and accepts new apparel, similarly the embodied soul giving up old and worn out bodies verily accepts new bodies. “Yajur Veda 35.2 - savitā te shridebhyah prthivyām lokamicchatu, tasmai yujyant Amustriyāh (article by Yogacharya yogi baba Prem) - The sun God grants bodies in different births, according to your deeds, providing a happy or unhappy place on this earth.  May radiant beams prove helpful to you.” (Tibetan Buddhist teaching of incarnation youtube)’.  Antiquity humans honoured these Mantra names to saviours of the society and its culture.

In Antiquity many Gods and Goddesses attached to war were tribal leaders, who led and succeeded protecting their ideology and the race. Examples of enemy destroyers holding weapons deities Chinese Taizu God, Indus Valley Shiva God,  Minoan Snake Godess,  Persian and Mesopotamia Marduk Sun God,  Ancient Greek Dionysus, Egyptian Gods Ptah and King, Mesoamerican Viracocha God. All of them earned piousness by proving their submission to people’s welfare and security.  India has various Gods and Goddesses; the reason is that Ancient Indus had numerous tribes and their ‘Kula Devatas (family God)’, who grew family tree. (Wikipedia) 48  + 51 + Shibarai, Sora, Shibi, Kiratas, Guna, kindred, Gond, Santhal, Nishad, Andhak, Bhoj, Vransi, tulu, and several more tribes; with respective chiefs’ populated the civilization were split into southern and northern Vedic cultures. Tribes were separated into two major race systems 1. Shaivites – Followers of Lord Shiva 2. Vaishnavites – Followers of Lord Vishnu, were identified by symbols on forehead Shaivites applied tripundra (3 lines) Bhasmam (scented ash) and Vaishnavites applied Urdhva Pundra (upright Lotus), “Stephen Knapp explains as why wear tilak – There are different reasons why this is done and what they mean, but here is a description of why Vaishnavas wear Gopi Chandana.” Different ritual performance systems triggered conflict among tribes. Major war fought between them was during Ramayana between Rama and Ravana  period “7600BCE claimed by Dr. Vartak in book scientific dating Ramayana and Vedas.

Ravana was Brahmin Shaivites, follower of Lord Shiva, and Rama was Vaishnavites. He was great scholar of medicine, urban planning and astrology, his reign was democratically governed. Women freedom of voice in society was as free as men. Despite his tremendous calibre, he failed to identify the enemies within, lost was against Rama was as a consequence of betrayal by Vibhishana and his wife Mandodari. However, he is considered as demon king. “The Hindu article – Ravana himself is said to have lived in Singiriya, now a Unesco heritage site about 170kms from Colombo. He was a member of ‘a highly advanced and intelligent’ Yaksha tribe. The king Ravana was an expert among warriors; a specialist among medical men; a Rishi among astrologers; a superior statesman among rulers; a maestro among musicians. “(Wikipedia) Ravana’s Father Vishrava was Brahmin Arya (Lord Brahma’s descendets), mastered Vedic knowledge, and Mother kaikesi daughter of Daitya king of Asura Tribes.  According to Book Forest, Government and Tribe H.D Sankaliya - Ravan belonged to Gond tribe. Ravan Vanshi Gonds are still found among the Gonds, who hold Ravana in high esteem as a king. ‘Vanars of Ramayana’ belonged to other tribes such as Savars and Korkus.” Dr. Rao Archaeologist says - the evidence found in Indus seals showed that ‘Rim Sin’ had fought for a long time an undecided war with King ‘Hammurabi’ identified as ‘Ravana’ of the Indus seals.”

RAMA was eldest son of 4 sons of king Dashrath. He was greatest of all the brothers created his reign in democratic pattern. He had set an example to the Vedic world by involving citizen’s voice in founding the political structure. Population voice during Rama reign was so strong that influenced him to detach his wife Sita from him. Roma’s historical expiations – “Srimad Bhagvatam (scribed.com) – Katvanga’s son was Dheergabahu and his son was Raghu. The Pruthushrava (conquer of the World) Raghu’s son was Maharaha Aja and his son was Dasharatha. Bhagvan himself was born in his family.” “The book Tribal culture, faith history (page 67-68): Tangas of Arunachal Pradesh – It is stated that Lord Rama and his brother Laxman entered north-East India from Thailand and Myanmar and lived in the kingdom of Lord Hanuman. In Thai Ramayana Hanuman is described as a married person unlink Balmiki’s and Tulsi’s version wherein he is mentioned as a stern bachelor. As per the Thai tradition Rama got married to the daughter of Lord Hanuman and her descendents migrated to Europe, the Americas and other parts of the world whereas the descendents of Lakshman lived in SE Asia, North-East India and other hilly regions of Indian Sub-continent.”   Dr. Rao an archaeologist (The Rediff.com) says the Indus seals found on the banks of river Saraswati suggest that Banawali must be Ram Janambhoomi and not Ayodhya. ‘Rim-Sin’ whose name was read in the Indus seals as ‘Rama Sana’ was son of Kudur Mabug and reigned in Larsa, the modern Sankera in Iraq. Rim in Sumerian language means ‘ruler’ and Raman is the name of ‘thunder god of the Amorites’. Sin means moon god.” “Rama was of great dynasties of ancient India, the solar dynasty of Kosala, and is included among the detailed genealogies of ancient Hindu kings.” “Kosalas, Indian Puranic Tribes - Kosalas were an Aryan, Kshatriya race, they were descendants of the solar family, and were supposed to have derived directly from Manu through Iksvaku. In Vedic literature that the Iksvakus were originally a branch of Purus, the descent of those ruling princes of Kosala from Iksvaku is borne out by the genealogies in the Ramayana as well as the Puranas.”  

Be Cautious: Above informations are only basics based on my assumptions, may not be correct so use only if your teachers are satisfied. For history I referred Wikipedia and other sources whose links are cited.

Click links to View Rare Old Photos: Gandhi with his wife Kasturba Gandhi… 15th August 1947, First News Paper of INDEPENDENT INDIA… ... The front page of the April 16, 1912 evening edition of the Boston Globe, detailing the Titanic Disaster is shown… ... C. V. Raman - The Great Indian Physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect… ... In India First railway was built between Mumbai and thane... Star Cinema ( now at Pakistan ) 1943… ... The last train , Dhaka to Calcutta!!! Taken in 1947… ... the crown of India… ... Shooting-the-mgm-lion-logo-in-1924… ... Stalin, Lenin and Trotsky… ... An Awesome painting of Leonardo da vinci…... The original picture of Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai. This picture has been taken by German photographer Hoffman 160 years ago… ... British India and Afghanistan border - 1934… ... A rare one of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and his wife Eimilie Shenkl… ...

Best education is to gain positive knowledge to survive and perform. When in the education, seeking highest marks becomes priority the objective is only how to get best percentage by hook or crook. Is this not the guidelines for children to become selfish!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Sadashivan’s quotes

"Life seems sometimes like nothing more than a series of losses, from beginning to end. That's the given. How you respond to those losses, what you make of what's left, that's the part you have to make up as you go."— Katharine Weber

child labour photos, rural poverty photos, urban poverty photos, Ignoring rural development, Economics AND Management, Why women are poor and oppressed? TRADE & POVERTY relation, What is "BEHAVIOR", What is environment? Emotion is a reaction to the influence, What is culture? Africa to Indus-Valley (Dravidian,) Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age), What is religion and how did it exist, What is civilization?, "ART" is reflection of identity!!! "Stress", "LOVE" is SUBMISSION to the ATTRACTION!!! THE COMMON LANGUAGES, Learning the skill to survive is "EDUCATION" !!! Evolution is a process for suitability !!!! Sex & Attraction, enjoy tribal dance click photos, Urbanization and the Future World, movies - videos, Handmade rugs/ carpets process photographs, social study books, SOCIAL STUDY TRAVEL LINKS.