The Book of Kelle: An Introduction to Goddess-Worship and the Great Celtic Mother-Goddess Kelle

Women of India: Their Status Since the Vedic Times

Slave Girls

The Rig Veda: An Anthology

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Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age - Women)

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In antiquity migrated small families began settling down in separate family groups near water and food sources. Male members were responsible for arranging food which prompted to stay away for several hours and days from the family. In his absence mother was responsible to take burden on her shoulder. Perhaps Mother’s instinct, emotion and attentive nurturing together privileged upper hand in the family.  Her extreme sacrifices towards protecting children and family revered her as saviour. She was a friend, partner and caring, her guidance to kids and male members honoured the title as ‘Goddess’.  Rig Veda 10.17.10: “O’ Mothers! Purify us with your compassion, understanding and enlightenment. The women cleanse us all from all our sin, corruption and defects. We come out firm, pure and noble from their blessed company. Atharveda 6.61.7 O’ enlightening Mother! You have the potential to destroy the evil. You have potential to destroy the clouds of frustrations and doubt. You are brave and you only aspire for our well-being and success! We indeed are blessed!”  Over the period of time growing family members demanded more space, separated settlements but lived together in same group, which formed a hamlet that originated them as “tribe”. Perhaps the tribal group names May have derived from their behaviour, occupation and culture. The Mother of first family who established root of family group was called ‘Kula Devi’ and Father named as ‘Kula Devata’. Realization to pay tribute created deity of Kula Devi and honoured during family group gathering. “Rig Veda 8.18.7 May the pure life-giving enlightening woman be respected as mother everyday so that she provides us with peace and eradicates all hatred from the society.” Mahabharata, Shantiparva, 30.9 Bhishma Pitamaha said: “The teacher who teaches true knowledge is more important than ten instructors. The father is more important than ten teachers of true knowledge and the mother is more important than ten such fathers. There is no greater guru than mother.”

Women had significant role, both Pre and Proto Vedic scholars realised the importance of men-women contribution towards foundation of a civilization. Veda inscriptions emphasised spiritual role for women which clearly signifies the importance. Pre Vedic civilization went further ahead considering mother as above all the Gods. Mother Goddesses spiritually ruled most ancient civilizations. View pictures of Mother Goddesses: Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Minoan, Mycenaeans, Athens, Chinese, Mesoamerica, and Romans. “When God Was a Girl” - BBC Documentary (Women and Religion) on youtube explains about ancient Goddesses received respect from ancient people who worshiped and chanted praises. “O bride! Ma the knowledge of the Vedas be in front of you and behind you, in your center and in your ends. May you conduct your life after attaining the knowledge of the Vedas. May you be benevolent, the hardbinger of good fortune and health, and live in great dignity and indeed be illumined in your husband’s home (Atharva Veda 14.1.64).” In early Vedic civilization women were equally encouraged performing social activities.  Manu Smrity (3/56) - “Yatr Naryostu Pujyantay, Ramantay Tatr Devataa” The Gods reside in places where women is Worshiped.  Atharvaveda 11.5.18, 14.1.6, 14.1.20, 7.46.3, 7.47.2 scripts respected and encouraged women. Rig Veda 10.85.7, 3.31.1, 10.159, 1.164.41, 10.85.46 focuses on importance of women contribution of knowledge in home and society. Yajur Veda 20.9, 16.44, 10.26, 30.15 emphasis men and women are equal. Rig veda 10.53.8 bodies in the ancient times was not burnt but buried; nor can we discover the slightest allusion to the later practice of Sati or cremation of the widow with her husband. Beauty of women considered more important than the race and caste.  There is an example of unmarried Satyawati daughter of a fisherman tribe met a sage Parashara who fathered her son Vyasa. Satyavati was great-great mother of Pandava and Kaurava of Mahabharata. Later King Shantanu enchanted by her beauty and smell she carried offered to marry her, which she accepted on condition that their children would inherit the throne. Such encouraging examples too prevailed during those times. 

The slavery existed during Rig Vedic period. Manu in samhitas “he refers to slave girls who waited upon the Kings to look after his comforts. Manu requires the King to fix their wages and allowances suited to their rank and position for the women employed in royal service”. Manu (v.8.363) – “Yet who secretly converses with such women or with female slaves kept by one master and with female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay a small fine.” In Rig Veda there is reference of ‘Slave Girls’ were rounded up and used as slave girls after killing their men in raids by rival tribes. These girls or women were maid servants in the day to serve woman masters and house. Rig Veda 6.27.8, 8.38 and 5.47.8 denotes how kings presented chariots full of slave girls to guests, close circles and priests. Women were subjected as property in many cases, were taken under possession after lost in gambling and failing to loan payment. They were known as ‘Vadhu’ is also knows for wife, masters were free to establish sexual contact without any marriage ceremony. In most cases masters behaved civilly with them, rather kept them as family members. However children born to them did not have property or hereditary rights. It was up to the will of the master to consider but could be challenged by other members if disputed. Few examples of kings ruthless behaviours towards wives (India Devine org) – 1st “Ahalya, the rishi’s wife, first victimised by powerful Indra and then instead of finding refuge in husband’s arms, faced curse for doing wrong.” Atharva Veda 14.1.20 describes Hey wife! Become the queen and manager of everyone in the family of your husband - 2nd “King Harishchandra sold his wife in the market considering Taramati a wife is his property.” Rig Veda 10.34.13 describes any kind of gambling particularly the fame of dice also cause of corruption - 3rd “Yudhishtar waged Draupadi after lost in the gambling with Kauravs” There are more examples which reveal sobbing history of women not only in Vedic period rather persisted in all the civilisations, except the Dravidian and early Vedic period which delivered women higher status than men by honouring her with Goddesses. Slave girls system was cruel as were shared with nearest and dearest guests and sold. Perhaps women slavery gave birth to freelance prostitution.

Vedic period did not escape corruption and corrupt practices in Government, society and business centres. Veda and other samhitas (inscriptions) distinctively highlighted ways arresting wretched side of civilization. Brahman’s and temple priests were responsible to guide kings and inhabitants to establish sociable atmosphere. Sama-Veda 179 and 913 describes corruption as nine (hydra) headed and it enters the human body through ninety nine sources. Rig Veda 3.34.6 and Yajurveda 30.22, the corrupt people should not be allowed by the ruler to mix with people following Chatvar Varnasharam (four divine professions). Yajurveda 30.19 and Rig-Veda 5.61.8 mention that those persons who praise and justify are also corrupt persons, keep away from them. Rig Veda 1.42.4 even mentions keep away from Gurus (sage) who take donations/charity. However, over time the Brahmans inherited status from fathers, grandfathers and great grandfathers without qualifying and understanding sense of the Bramhatva. As a result of winning wars by kings and economic growth Brahmans began losing grip over Kshatriya, Vaishyas and others prompted manipulation of Vedic knowledge, created negative and unkind Brahman supremacy. Brahmans as sage (Guru) influenced kings to act on their behalf and benefits. They created stringent systems to suppress low caste and women. Whatever Rig Veda, Manu samhitas or Atharveda may proclaim encouraging to women status and honour. The truth is; in practice situation was different, corrupt elites misled population through misinterpretation of Vedic hymns. Independent role of women were restricted 4th Varna became untouchables. Women and Shudra were stayed away from Vedic knowledge and rituals. The example of misinterpretation Vedic hymns for women widow (pictures social documentary) led to self immolation (Sati):  (Wikipedia) इमा नारीरविधवाः सुपत्नीराञ्जनेन सर्पिषा संविशन्तु | अनश्रवो.अनमीवाः सुरत्ना रोहन्तु जनयोयोनिमग्रे || (RV 10.18.7) Let these women, whose husbands are worthy and are living, enter the house with ghee (applied) as collyrium (to their eyes). Let these wives first step into the house, tearless without any affliction and well adorned. उदीर्ष्व नार्यभि जीवलोकं गतासुमेतमुप शेष एहि | हस्तग्राभस्य दिधिषोस्तवेदं पत्युर्जनित्वमभि सम्बभूथ || (RV 10.18.8) Rise, come unto the world of life, O woman — come, he is lifeless by whose side thou liest. Wifehood with this thy husband was thy portion, who took thy hand and wooed thee as a lover.” There is no indication of self immolation or setting on fire along with the dead husband. On the other side, Vedas cited self immolation or suicide as sin; “Garuda Pruana 2.2.8 reflects, those who commit suicide (and die a violent death in general) become ghosts.” The Wives of Ayodhya king Dashratha did not self immolate on his death, similarly, in Mahabharata period wives of Kauravas too did not attempt suicide. Rather, during those periods they had opportunities of remarriage as Ravana’s wife Mandodari resettled with his younger brother Vibhishana. They could also settle back in their parental homes or choose a partner of her choice. During 500 BC – 500 AD in the age of Sutras, Epics and early Smritis position of women drastically deteriorated. In the beginning Sati system was confined to Worrier class, but of late this system spread wide and became social stature. Widows in Rig Veda 10.18.9 - “the new husband while taking the widow as his wife says to her. Let us launch a new life of valor and strength begetting male children overcoming all enemies who may assail us.” “Garuda Purana 1.107.27 says if the husband is untraceable, dead, or has renounced the world, is impotent or degraded – in these cases of emergency a woman can remarry.” During same period, marriageable age was reduced to 9 or 10; a girl after her age of 12 became burden to the family. As a result of child marriage number of young widows rose drastically. Many so-called sages challenged and questioned disallowing remarriage of widows and recommended to arrange allowances for respectable life. Many upper class widows managed surviving respectably, but on the other hand many of them victimised to sexual lust.  

The rise in trade and economic growth, wars and Urbanization began impacting women negatively. Under foreign trade and exchange influence, women were seen as sexual object for attracting customers and delegates. Even during Vedic period the prostitution and women entertainers thrived. “Vedic texts give account of a mythic empire builder, Bharata, and prove that people were acquainted with prostitution through references to “loose women”, female “vagabonds” and sexually active unmarried girls. The Vedic word Sadbarani refers to a woman who offers sex for payment. In Vedic times, most prostitutes seem to have dressed in red, even their gold jewellery was reddened (reference - Prostitution in India and its role in the spread of HIV infection”   Valmiki Ramayana 1.10. 3 ,to 11 & 13 “Taah Chitra Veshaah Pramadaa Gaayantyah Madhura Swaram Rishi Putram Upaagamya Sarvaa Vachanam Abraaviit; Adrishta Ruupah Taah Tena Kaamya Roopa Vane Streeh, Hardaat Tasya Mathiah Jaatha Vyakhyatum Pataram Svakam = They the lustful women amazingly attired and singing melodious tune, all of them neared the sage’s son and spoke these words. By him unseen images in forest with desirable womanly forms... in friendliness, his is inclined to tell them about his father.” Manu Samhita Codes were tough on prostitutes, forbidding Brahman taking food from prostitutes. Surviving on their income, their houses were shameful as slaughter house.  Held prostitutes liable for punishments killing entailed meagre penalties. However, their business flourished and sought influential contacts to influence dignitaries and aristocrats. Most of them were rich lived lavishly. Many Kings and Aristocrats sought their role to manipulate and disintegrate rivals, which shook dominance of many elite Brahmans. Later period during 4-3rd century BC a Brahman teacher ‘Chanakya’ outlined the code of conduct for kings and the citizens, called ‘Arthashastra’. Chanakya strictly controlled sexual entertainment to public by prostitutes ‘Ganika’. (2.27.27) women who lived by their beauty (Rupajivas) could, however, entertain men as independent practitioners. (3.13.37) these could have been allowed to practice in smaller places which could not support a full-fledged state establishment. A third type of women pleasure, mentioned in few places, is pumsachali, perhaps meaning concubines. The courtesans were paid lump sum grants of 1000 panas and her deputy 500 panas, who were maintained by establishment. The head of the establishment had to render full account and chief controller of Entertainers made responsible to ensure the net income was not reduced by her extravagance (2.27.10). Independent prostitutes who were neither given a grant nor required to produce detailed accounts, had to pay a tax 1/6 of their income. Chanakya realised stopping prostitution was impossible, rather prostitution made as legal business but was to be operated in quarantined areas and generated Government income from that.  

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Be Cautious: Above informations are only basics based on my assumptions, may not be correct so use only if your teachers are satisfied. For history I referred Wikipedia and other sources whose links are cited.

Click links to View Rare Old Photos: Gandhi with his wife Kasturba Gandhi… 15th August 1947, First News Paper of INDEPENDENT INDIA… ... The front page of the April 16, 1912 evening edition of the Boston Globe, detailing the Titanic Disaster is shown… ... C. V. Raman - The Great Indian Physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, FRS (7 November 1888 – 21 November 1970) was an Indian physicist. He was the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1930 for the discovery that when light traverses a transparent material, some of the light that is deflected changes in wavelength. This phenomenon is now called Raman scattering and is the result of the Raman effect… ... In India First railway was built between Mumbai and thane... Star Cinema ( now at Pakistan ) 1943… ... The last train , Dhaka to Calcutta!!! Taken in 1947… ... the crown of India… ... Shooting-the-mgm-lion-logo-in-1924… ... Stalin, Lenin and Trotsky… ... An Awesome painting of Leonardo da vinci…... The original picture of Jhansi Rani Laxmi Bai. This picture has been taken by German photographer Hoffman 160 years ago… ... British India and Afghanistan border - 1934… ... A rare one of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and his wife Eimilie Shenkl… ...

Best education is to gain positive knowledge to survive and perform. When in the education, seeking highest marks becomes priority the objective is only how to get best percentage by hook or crook. Is this not the guidelines for children to become selfish!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Sadashivan’s quotes

"Life seems sometimes like nothing more than a series of losses, from beginning to end. That's the given. How you respond to those losses, what you make of what's left, that's the part you have to make up as you go."— Katharine Weber

child labour photos, rural poverty photos, urban poverty photos, Ignoring rural development, Economics AND Management, Why women are poor and oppressed? TRADE & POVERTY relation, What is "BEHAVIOR", What is environment? Emotion is a reaction to the influence, What is culture? Africa to Indus-Valley (Dravidian,) Africa to Indus-Valley (Vedic Age), What is religion and how did it exist, What is civilization?, "ART" is reflection of identity!!! "Stress", "LOVE" is SUBMISSION to the ATTRACTION!!! THE COMMON LANGUAGES, Learning the skill to survive is "EDUCATION" !!! Evolution is a process for suitability !!!! Sex & Attraction, enjoy tribal dance click photos, Urbanization and the Future World, movies - videos, Handmade rugs/ carpets process photographs, social study books, SOCIAL STUDY TRAVEL LINKS.