industrial development and invention of motorized looms set an end to cottage industries. Crossely Carpet from Halifax began
production by motorized looms to fill demand and supply gap of growing population. These
looms changed the history of carpet industries. The updated technology gave birth to auto shuttle-less looms. The product
from these looms is so cheap that attracted even middle and lower middle class consumers. The scope of power loom rugs grew
so much that almost eliminated the handmade rugs. The boon to consumers is now starvation to the weavers.
Weaving of an Area Rug: - Traditional, ethnic, oriental, Persian,
and nomadic rugs are mostly woven in silk, wool or cotton. In most societies warp used of cotton for the strength and tension
to withhold but in many Aztec and nomadic rugs, we find both warp and weft used of wool. Use of material depends on the tradition
and availability. In case of any
warp for the rug loom, is in ply twisted together to give more strength for warp. The machines to weave are the pit looms,
frame looms are auto or handlooms. Better yarn, color and the density of the weave is for better quality of a rug. Apart from
it, even the time consumed to weave counts to give value to the traditional or ethnic rug. Popular weaving techniques for
hand made rugs are braiding, hand weave, tuft, shuttle, and knots. Most popular of all rugs is woolen rugs and the best yarn
used is New-Zeeland wool as it has grace, shine, and length to qualify for high value rug. From zero count to 100 counts thread
used for rugs. Thin yarn used for weaving high-density weaves to obtain clarity of the design, more threads per inch is for
more dense design. Zero count mainly used for weaving shaggy rugs. Tuft, knots,
or woven cut pile are to give shape as shaggy rugs. So weaving is a system to join warp and weft together that gives look
to fabric or rug. Knotting is a system to bind thread on warp and cut, a thread inserted as weft to fix knots between two
wefts to give shape for fabric.
Construction quality of the rug: Methods to check number of knots in the rug/ carpets in India Varanasi: - Bhadhoi-
Mirzapaur is very traditional and typical; the system initially used to make illiterate weavers understand what the customer
requires. Construction quality based on number of warp threads per yard, for example, the quality 14/ 70 that means 14 (BIS)
pairs of warp quality. BIS in Hindi is 20. 14 x 20 (BIS) warp pairs = 280 warp pairs in a yard. Knotting done between 280X2
= 560 lines of warp. Number of warp pairs in yard divided by 20 is the quality of warp count. Number of knots vertically in
9” is the quality of the rug. 70 knots per 9” inch vertically.
For warp quality 14: Number of warp threads per yard is 14 x 20(BIS) x 2(pair) = 560 threads per yarn in the warp. Therefore,
warp threads counted in small portion of the rug in 9 inches 70 pairs x 2 = 140 single x 4 = 560 threads in 36 inches or yard.
For knots quality 70: We count number of knots per 9 inches that means if has
70 knots in 9 inches is called 70 quality.
internationally the knots counting are per square inch or centimeter. This system is more practical and easy and very useful
to count high-density rugs.
Fabric weight in kg PER M2
CALCULATION:- (Reed divided by
warp count x 1.10) + (Picks divided by weft count x 1.04) x 23.45 = 23.45 M2
needs resources to survive, without which unemployment will move up and lead to unrest, one day. The claim of poverty elimination
by 2015 of UN will become untrue until contemplated to generate resources for employment generation. People need jobs for
their livelihood and not the micro credit campaign of International Organizations.
To make competitive
and touchy handmade carpets appropriate Governments and international bodies need to frame solutions so the unemployment crisis
does not lead to their suicides:
- Extended Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) benefits to handmade rugs from GSP beneficiary
countries alone would not help to compete with auto loom products. Restrictions and the duty tariffs need to be enhanced on
auto loom products.
- Restore duty drawback to previous benefits. Handmade and human involved products deserve
the benefits as generate employment opportunities.
- Enhance import duties on auto loom carpet / rugs to fill gap. This is to minimize the gap between
prices of both products.
- Governments should levy High duties on wool and cotton raw/ yarn exports especially in
the countries where demand is higher than the supply. Similarly, import duties too increased. This would encourage the exports
of finished products. The shortage is boon to mediators and curse to consumers.
- Minimize mediators during procurement and processing. Governments or ngos’ to set
up own distribution units to make available the raw material to weavers. Weavers and growers do not make rather the mediators
enjoy this weakness.
Purpose of this site is to provide educational material to students of social studies.
This site has photo illustrations to the students and to others For students the carpet, rug weaving photo illustrations
is very useful for their education and study topics of traditional art and crafts, poverty, handloom/ handicrafts and
employment creation, developing countries and employment opportunities, Handloom and power loom crisis, ethnic designing and
civilization arts & crafts. Students and all others are free to refer and copy the pictures to their topics or personal
use. This topic is also useful for research on crisis of handloom weavers. Also is a glimpse to consumers of carpet/ rugs,
weaving tradition and history when one buys handmade rugs means one contributes to save the world employment in own way.
Please click on the links below to read
my articles on more social issues
POVERTY A SUBJECT - This growth of poverty level is largely due to misunderstanding poverty. Measures controlling poverty should
be linked to the suitability of the country, as reasons of poverty changes due to social conditions of the country.
CHILD LOBOUR AND SOCIETY - A
concern of child labour exists from poverty. We have to understand as why
children go to work. If parents don't send their children to work I am
sure factories will not be able to consume them. Why poor parents feel
children as their assets who will earn money for their home?
UNWANTED HUMANS - This throbbing short story of a
EUNUCH was once submitted to U.N.O on June 12th of 1989 for
appropriate action. Thanks to U.N.O for its understanding in reply
dated October 24th of 1989 for its support and its action
to protect this unwanted human. With the effort of Government and
Women and RIGHTS -
Many generations woman is treated as property. Women were never
treated as self-individual in any civilization. Their independence was
discouraged in almost all the civilizations and religions. Without
women there would have no civilization, no religion, no societies and
no men. Woman is earth, gives birth and nourish till the boy becomes
HANDLOOM AND COTTAGE
INDUSTRIES - Serious problem to the
uneducated and semi educated workers of undeveloped and underdeveloped
countries, whose main exports are agricultural/ textiles and carpets
and products of cottage industries.
UNORGNAISED SECTOR SOCIAL SECURITY - There
are thousands of organizations, who can really come ahead with this
mission to approach appropriate countries making them understand the
necessity and influence them to provide social security to workers who are in UNORGANISED
Distressing FACTS -
This site has the real news and the real causes. The information is not from the
media but from the real people and by the people. Go on clicking page
links listen to them in video clips and meet. Very useful for your
research, social studies, and poverty education on grim issues and the
plights people face.
POVERTY AND TRIBES - Tribes are socially rich economically poor. Most tribes live in
below poverty line. Read their culture as why they need forests.
Do not forget to click pictures in this site to view traditional
SCALE OF UNEMPLOYMENT AND MOUNTAIN VILLAGE - Munsyari mountain village in India has about 21 villages each has population of about 80 families totaling
around 300 people in each with high rate of unemployment !!!!
Marriage dreams when fails !! - Fading
attraction of spouse drives to incline towards fresh and new
attractions so can gratify self and fulfill what is lost.
Giving importance to partner’s
role and involving intensely to play his/her role in the house promotes
understanding each other.
A force applied with strength to extreme or beyond the
capacity is stress. Application of stress is in order to sustain,
defend, defeat, or achieve the objective. A stress has both negative
and positive impacts that lead to strain. The consequence of stress is
strain that means the disturbances resulted due to stress imbalances
the arrangement. Continuous stress in one stage increases the capacity
WORLD and the UNITED NATIONS !!!!
Why should UN only depend the member countries? As UN is the
international body recognized by all the member countries it has right
to generate own fund through international transactions. Discourage
& encourage taxes of import/exports of mechanized or non mechanized
products, banking transactions, sea/air travels and cargo,
What is "BEHAVIOR"
- Is self gene qualities and inherited character that consists in one
to act or function, a conduct that gives identity to an individual is
behavior. Behavior of individual depends on what characteristics it
possesses. One’s behavior pleases and other’s infuriates.
What is environment? -
"Environment is surrounding atmosphere/ condition for existence" -
"Environment is an essential natural process or an outcome of
occurrence" – "Environment is of two types, one is negative and the
other is positive"
What is culture? -
Culture is process to live in group. Each society has norms to follow
by individuals in order to retain society strong and intact. Culture is
a process for identity of living creatures and cultural evolution
raises the identity of society, benefit goes to its individuals.
What is religion and how did it exist?
lived in small groups, regulations and systems were formed to maintain
discipline in the group. All small groups had own ideology that were
obligatory to all group members. As they were too small in groups,
system differed from group (society) to group.
What is civilization?
Civilization is an outcome of strong culture and religion of the society!!!
Strong cultural and religious growth play important role for a strong society,
gives strong identity to one society which initiates other small societies
"LOVE" is SUBMISSION to the ATTRACTION!!!
Love is formed when attraction, wish and submission to action combine
together in human. When we find something attractive in any look or
form, the enchantment comes from within, that leads to our wish of any
form that leads to submission.
Learning the skill to survive is "EDUCATION" !!!
- The practices and activities conducted are the methods to survive.
Methods vary from species to species and circumstances to circumstances as
required for continued existence. Encounter failure, prompts to improve to
succeed in future attempts. It is like tiger chases its prey (deer),
Carnal Attraction is sense of temptation, becomes one of essential
activities of life when reaching suitable period. Sexual behavior is
natural instinct to seek gratification, gifted to us by nature. The
natural force and its influence of attraction with opposite, is for the
promotion of existence. The release is relief and the relief is
ecstasy. (An Adult Link not for minor)
BUY BOOKS FOR YOUR SUBJECTS CLICK BELOW
child labour books, Text Books for schools and colleges,
Good books on poverty,
SOME GOOD BOOKS ON WOMEN RIGHTS,
social study books,
Good books on creation, evolution, behaviour, religion and spritual,
Books on Hijra (Eunuchs),
good books on tribes,
good books on unorganized sectors,
handloom & cottage industries Books,
Some good books for Area rugs/ carpets,
Books for Marriage - relationship and issues,
Sex Education - guidance books