pealing coconut
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Pealing coconut to remove husk. One persons peals around 1500 coconuts a day

pealed shell softening(click to enlarge)
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Pealed shells then taken to river to dip to soften. Facilitates smooth ripping shells.

Coir husk (click to enlarge)
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Shells are then pealed again to remove husk and carded by hand to open fiber.

coir husk dip (click to enlarge)
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Fiber in bales washed in river to soften. Process softens hard coir to spin by hand.

Handmade rugs/ carpets process

Handmade coir rug process photographs

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The most useful tree of all, as all parts of this tree is useful for day-to-day life. Its nuts are eatable and for cooking oil, nutshells used for handicrafts and charcoal, leaves on rooftop to protect from rain, tree as wood, coconut husk (CHAGARI) used for ropes, rugs, and doormats. Marco Polo recognized its use when he found coir rope strong enough for his ship that gave international identity to coir products and the trade flourished. When English came to power, they explored the possibilities of trade of coir products and established the production units in Alleppey district of kerala. In 1859, the first organized coir factory was started here and began producing matting from coir yarn on a loom developed by an English Sea Captain.

Among coir products, most known are mats and rugs to all for its coarseness and water resistance quality. Panama, boucle, and herringbone weave are common in these rugs. FM (fiber mat), VC (vaicam creel), and BC (beach creel) are the qualities of doormats.  

Hand spun coir yarn (click to enlarge)
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Hand spinning of the fiber. Yarn Quality depends on brightness and softness.

spinning coir yarn (click to enlarge)
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Second easier method of spinning. Quality depends how bright and soft the yarn is.

Coir yarn dyeing
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Coiryarn dyed in the tub.fastness achievable upto 40degree. for big lots chambers r used.

coir yarn dye (click to enlarge)
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Dyed coir yarn dried in sun in natural condition. Removed only after full dry.

Coir warp preparation (Click to enlarge)
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Yarn is checked and prepared for warp

coir warp on the loom
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Warp fixed on the loom to weave. The picture of the door-mat loom.

initial preparation to weave (click to enlarge)
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Arranging initial set up in loom. Pedals arranged to move legs to change warp position.

shreddding machine (click to enlarge)
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Trimming/ shredding mats with machine to give shape to doormats

weaving door mat (click to enlarge)
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Plain woven door mats simple weaving

reel of yarn in shaft (click to enlarge)
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Bobbin in the shaft used to fill weft yarn. Then combed to arrange & tighten with weave

coir powerloom (click to enlarge)
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Haringbone weave mattings from powerloom

coir door mat weaving (click to enlarge)
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inserting coir fiber between warp then comb used to fix weave.

weaving zoom (click to enlarge)
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Weaving in zoom view. Hard weaving with hard & strong yarn.

printing (click to enlarge)
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stencil printing of door mat. Stencils are prepared as per the design required

using latex to give shape (click to enlarge)
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Gluing edges with rubber latex to fix shape and fiber of doormat.

engraving print (click to enlarge)
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Hand carving/ engraving with scissor the printed portion for shape and look.

India once the largest exporter of Coco rugs now have lost to other natural fiber rugs. Shortage of fiber and high cost of production gave entry to other natural rugs sisal, jute, bamboo, sea grass, screw pine, and others. 

Coir industry’s failure to compete other natural and synthetic products is because it lacks improved product range, high production cost for these cheap products, unstable raw material price, absence of product designing and verities. Coir fiber has high potential to compete woolen carpet provided explored to develop fiber for usage of tuft and loom carpets. Sisal with more shine and brightness has already taken over coir matting so final customer would prefer better at same price. Rather competition has resulted sisal products cheaper in the international market. Therefore, this industry has to switch over to value added products.

Purpose of this site is to provide educational material to students of social studies. This site has photo illustrations to the students and to others  For students the carpet, rug weaving photo illustrations is very useful for their education and study topics of traditional art and crafts, poverty, handloom/ handicrafts and  employment creation, developing countries and employment opportunities, Handloom and power loom crisis, ethnic designing and civilization arts & crafts. Students and all others are free to refer and copy the pictures to their topics or personal use. This topic is also useful for research on crisis of handloom weavers. Also is a glimpse to consumers of carpet/ rugs, weaving tradition and history when one buys handmade rugs means one contributes to save the world employment in own way.

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