hand made yarn (click to enlarge)
Hand made yarn mainly used for carpets yarn count is zero and uneven width for weaving carpets

spinning yarn (click to enlarge)
Man made machine used to spin yarn for traditional carpet

making hanks from yarn (click to enlarge)
Hanks are made from yarn to use for warp in handmade carpets/ rugs and textiles

Hand dyeing process (click to enlarge)
Hand dyeing process for both cotton and wool rugs and home textiles

PIT LOOM (click to enlarge)
Pit looms are generally used for weaving promotional and cheap cotton or wool floor area rugs

frame loom (click to enlarge)
Hand Loom for weaving textiles.

Indo nepal carpet/ making process(clickto enlarge)
Rod inserted through warp and wool thread piled to form loop

Churi used for cutting piles(click to enlarge)
Churi (knife) is used to cut loops formed by rod as in previous photo

Punja (Comb) used for fix piles(click to enlarge)
Punja is a comb used to fix the woven weft through rod.

Handmade rugs/ carpets process

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”Learn Rugs and carpet process and buy online” In fact, this handmade skill is age old since the human began hunting. The rugs were made of animal skin for protection from weather and comfort. Then during 400-500 BC, nomads and other tribes gave colour to it by traditional skills to signify their civilization. . Here is my home page: the rug became honour in the society. Having one rug in home made of best skill and art was an asset and respect. Paying tribute to guest was by laying and gifting the best-woven rug. The rug gave the image of the status of the society or individual. The art of rug weaving further advanced during 15-16 century in Persia by Safavid Dynasty mainly during the rule of Shah Tahmasp and Shah Abbas. They established weaving workshops in the cities of: Kashan , Kerman , Esfahan, Tabriz , Shiraz and cities of Persia. They changed nomadic arts to Persian art are now know as Persian rugs .

Wool yarn dyeing stage (click to enlarge)
Yarn is separated to use suitable quality for dyeing. Mass production in machines for same shade

Wool dye chambers (click to enlarge)
Chambers are used for dyeing above 200 meters for mass production. Hanks rotate in color water

Wool yarn preparation for dry (click to enlarge)
Ladies are removing wool yarn from dyeing chambers to expose in sun to dry

yarn dry (click to enlarge)
After coloring exposed in sun to dry. This process is for beter shine in the yarn

Hand knott carpet looms (click to enlarge)
warp of cotton threads knotting is done on weft side. Higher the number of knots betters the carpet

Hand tuft the design(click to elnarge)
Tufting on marked designs in fabric. Tuft piles are formed the other side of the fabric

indo nepal weaving (click to enlarge)
Hathora (woodden hammer used for tightening for density.

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Women handknotting carpet

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Partly finished hand knotted persian carpet

Weaving gabbeh (click to enlarge)
Weaving 5/28 quality of gabbeh rugs. man holding tool is to cut knotts after tied into warp

Hand knotts (click to enlarge)
man is knotting the wool on warp/weft . Knots then cut & tightened with punja (comb) for stiffness

Hand tuft carpet process( click to enlarge)
Hand tuft machines first inserts wool thread in required design then cuts to make a pile.

Tufted carpet backing (click to enlarge)
Use liquid rubber natural or synthetic in the back to give grip to tufted part. Then fabric is paste

finsihing process of tuft carpet (click & enlarge)

Final process before washing tuft carpet. Stitching corners and removing excessive pile length for even look of the carpet.

Razing carpet (click to enlarge)
Razing over length wool thread by razing machine to give smooth and even look of the rug or carpet.

Carpet washing (click to enlarge)
Washing with chemicals & detergent for shine in carpet. Wash 5-15 times depending wool quality

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Aged man getting wool ready for knotting

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Even waste after weaving reprocessed to make cushions

During 1750-1850, industrial development and invention of motorized looms set an end to cottage industries. Crossely Carpet from Halifax began production by motorized looms to fill demand and supply gap of growing population.  These looms changed the history of carpet industries. The updated technology gave birth to auto shuttle-less looms. The product from these looms is so cheap that attracted even middle and lower middle class consumers. The scope of power loom rugs grew so much that almost eliminated the handmade rugs. The boon to consumers is now starvation to the weavers.

Weaving of an Area Rug: - Traditional, ethnic, oriental, Persian, and nomadic rugs are mostly woven in silk, wool or cotton. In most societies warp used of cotton for the strength and tension to withhold but in many Aztec and nomadic rugs, we find both warp and weft used of wool. Use of material depends on the tradition and availability.  In case of any warp for the rug loom, is in ply twisted together to give more strength for warp. The machines to weave are the pit looms, frame looms are auto or handlooms. Better yarn, color and the density of the weave is for better quality of a rug. Apart from it, even the time consumed to weave counts to give value to the traditional or ethnic rug. Popular weaving techniques for hand made rugs are braiding, hand weave, tuft, shuttle, and knots. Most popular of all rugs is woolen rugs and the best yarn used is New-Zeeland wool as it has grace, shine, and length to qualify for high value rug. From zero count to 100 counts thread used for rugs. Thin yarn used for weaving high-density weaves to obtain clarity of the design, more threads per inch is for more dense design.  Zero count mainly used for weaving shaggy rugs. Tuft, knots, or woven cut pile are to give shape as shaggy rugs. So weaving is a system to join warp and weft together that gives look to fabric or rug. Knotting is a system to bind thread on warp and cut, a thread inserted as weft to fix knots between two wefts to give shape for fabric.


Construction quality of the rug: Methods to check number of knots in the rug/ carpets in India Varanasi: - Bhadhoi- Mirzapaur is very traditional and typical; the system initially used to make illiterate weavers understand what the customer requires. Construction quality based on number of warp threads per yard, for example, the quality 14/ 70 that means 14 (BIS) pairs of warp quality. BIS in Hindi is 20. 14 x 20 (BIS) warp pairs = 280 warp pairs in a yard. Knotting done between 280X2 = 560 lines of warp. Number of warp pairs in yard divided by 20 is the quality of warp count. Number of knots vertically in 9” is the quality of the rug.  70 knots per 9” inch vertically.

For warp quality 14: Number of warp threads per yard is 14 x 20(BIS) x 2(pair) = 560 threads per yarn in the warp. Therefore, warp threads counted in small portion of the rug in 9 inches 70 pairs x 2 = 140 single x 4 = 560 threads in 36 inches or yard.

For knots quality 70:  We count number of knots per 9 inches that means if has 70 knots in 9 inches is called 70 quality.

However, internationally the knots counting are per square inch or centimeter. This system is more practical and easy and very useful to count high-density rugs.

Fabric weight in kg PER M2 CALCULATION:-  (Reed divided by warp count x 1.10) + (Picks divided by weft count x 1.04) x 23.45 = 23.45 M2 weight 

Overpopulated world needs resources to survive, without which unemployment will move up and lead to unrest, one day. The claim of poverty elimination by 2015 of UN will become untrue until contemplated to generate resources for employment generation. People need jobs for their livelihood and not the micro credit campaign of International Organizations.

To make competitive and touchy handmade carpets appropriate Governments and international bodies need to frame solutions so the unemployment crisis does not lead to their suicides:

  • Extended Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) benefits to handmade rugs from GSP beneficiary countries alone would not help to compete with auto loom products. Restrictions and the duty tariffs need to be enhanced on auto loom products.
  • Restore duty drawback to previous benefits. Handmade and human involved products deserve the benefits as generate employment opportunities.
  • Enhance import duties on auto loom carpet / rugs to fill gap. This is to minimize the gap between prices of both products.
  • Governments should levy High duties on wool and cotton raw/ yarn exports especially in the countries where demand is higher than the supply. Similarly, import duties too increased. This would encourage the exports of finished products. The shortage is boon to mediators and curse to consumers.  
  • Minimize mediators during procurement and processing. Governments or ngos’ to set up own distribution units to make available the raw material to weavers. Weavers and growers do not make rather the mediators enjoy this weakness.

Photo illustrations of rug/ carpet weaving A glimpse of weaving tradition and history for consumers of carpet/ rugs, when one buys handmade rugs means one contributes to save the world employment in own way. . Purpose of this site is to provide educational material to students of social studies. This site has photo illustrations to the students and to others For students the carpet, rug weaving photo illustrations is very useful for their education and study topics of traditional art and crafts, poverty, handloom/ handicrafts and employment creation, developing countries and employment opportunities, Handloom and power loom crisis, ethnic designing and civilization arts & crafts. Students and all others are free to refer and copy the pictures to their topics or personal use. This topic is also useful for research on crisis of handloom weavers. Also is a glimpse to consumers of carpet/ rugs, weaving tradition and history The colour and touch of handmade carpets is almost fading as facing stiff competition globally from power loom carpets/ rugs. Nearly 25% working population in this world, is involved in handmade activities. Invasion of power loom products have almost threatened and made weavers to starve and shift to other awkward professions. This issue has created a stage to commit suicide by many traditional manufacturers. Especially in developing countries, starvation death has increased due to unemployment and starvation.

Illustration of Carpet and rug weaving and dyeing process. Buy carpets and rugs online

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