Late 1960s from west Bengal (India) town of Naxalbari that
gave the movement name Naxalism broke away from main stream Marxist (communist) party. These rebels felt the communist party
comprising too much with its objective of existence and purpose. These well educated rebels took weapons in their hands declared
war against social injustice and exploitation of poor. They needed mass support and force to spread its wings so recruited
educated people. First war was against the Marxist Government of West Bengal. Failure of Marxists government to crush their
movement not only Naxalism to survive but also their movement spread to other states progressively. It attracted many idealist
youth dissatisfied with an unfair social and economic order to join its campaign which helped to grow further. Also one way
they gained appreciations from poor awarded more strength and became Robin Hood (heroes) in many eyes helped penetrate strongly
into many parts of the country where poverty was intense.
Other parts of the world communism started fading and began to embrace capitalism and democratic politics. Naxalism
movement was against democratic pattern that provided a vent to the anger of masses and therefore kept them from taking guns.
Governments assertion of war against Naxalism made them run towards jungle to operate from there, used guns to seek people
support. Change of world atmosphere towards democratic and capitalism and shifting of ideas of its objective was discouragement
within the movement. Intellectuals and idealists withdrew. It left with only angry outburst ideologists hang on to ideology
simply because to fail Government machinery or they do not know better ways to attain objective. Still have some dedicated
members but is slim, many of joined them for survival or this movement became their employment. Money became more as objective
to procure weapons and its survival. They adopted extortion as a method from traders, rich farmers and others from whom they
could extort and became Robin Hood to terror creators. They let government machinery function as long as favorable to them
or does not harm. Now the situation has come that they do not know what they are fighting, why and for whom.
As forests are their resort local population tribals are most affected by their actitivities. Many of this movement
are involved with trading in forests to make money in the name Naxalism. Any objection by tribal or village is punishable
to the law created is punishable either shot or houses burned.
What I observed as why Naxalites are very effective and successful in their operation especially in rural and interior
Governments failure to overcome poverty and
rural unemployment crisis. Many of the Naxalites cadres are because they did not get opportunity in other areas despite their
education. Naxalism gains strength by support from socially & economically exploited.
This issue is fuel for them so in order to restrict public support Government has to bring policies to generate employment
and social services in rural and interior villages.
Governments failure to understand the real
issue and problem. Do not consider this issue as law and order problem.
Weak intelligence and information system of
Government machinery. Intelligence system of Naxalites is better and faster than the Government thus they are fast in operation
and movement. I came across some village seniors who said generally posting done as punishment posting, if any superior does
not like a person, is posted there as punishment. How can one expect for the solution. Person posted will only be rather helping
hand to Naxalites. Corruption and inefficiency among posted staff makes Naxalites objective more successful and easy movement
in the village and forest. In many cases the situation is OK in the books but in actual is different
Naxalism is also one of the sources to some
politicians to gather mass votes in the village.
Insecurity and fear among the public and government
machinery. Disobedient is killed. Life is important so Governments responsibility to save life.